Mercer CED Methodology

The Mercer Cullen Egan Dell (CED) system has eight criteria which are refereed to as subfactors and which are common to all positions.  The eight subfactors are grouped into three factors: expertise, judgement and accountability. 


The Expertise factor measures the requirements of the position for education, training and work experience, the diversity of individual tasks as well as interpersonal skills.  The Expertise factor consists of three subfactors: knowledge and experience, breadth and interpersonal skills.

Knowledge and Experience

This subfactor measures the education, training, skills, knowledge and work experience requirements of a position.  It is not concerned with what the incumbent of the position's additional qualifications may be.  For example, a position may require knowledge of how to operate a chainsaw and ride on mower - that the position incumbent has a degree in horticulture is quite irrelevant.  What the position requires, as opposed to what the incumbent has, may be quite different.  The position is rated according to the skills, knowledge and experience required by the position and does not necessarily reflect the training and experience of the current job holder.


This aspect of expertise measures the diversity of tasks, activities and functions functions performed by the position, as well as the scale of operations managed by the position.  It considers not only the breadth of knowledge requirements for the position, but also the impact of various environmental influences on the position.  Such influences may include geographic considerations or the variety and nature of products/services and suppliers/clients.  The breadth subfactor also considers the need to integrate diverse or related activities.  It is this factor which responds most to organisational hierarchy.  The higher up the hierarchy, the wider the range of functions typically performed.

Interpersonal Skills

This subfactor measures the position's requirements for skill in managing people through communication, influence, persuasion, counselling, motivation and negotiation.  It is not a measure of the amount of interpersonal skills possessed by any incumbent, but rather is concerned with the people management skills required to achieve the position objectives.  A position requiring little contact with people outside the work area would have a lower rating, whereas a position required to lead staff and to convince and motivate others in the achievement of difficult and sometimes conflicting objectives would rate higher.


The Judgement factor evaluates the reasoning components of a job, focusing on the task definition and complexity, the constraints within which employees need to resolve problems and other thinking challenges of the position.  The Judgement factor consists of two subfactors: job environment and reasoning.

Job Environment

Job environment identifies the extent, clarity and completeness of objectives, guidelines, systems and policies as well as the nature and variety of tasks, steps, processes, methods or activities in the work performed.  It measures the degree to which a position holder must vary the work and develop new techniques.


This facet of judgement focuses on the requirements of the position for reasoning, analysis, interpretation, evaluation and creativity.  Its emphasis is on the need for analysing and solving problems. Position requirements range from situations where tasks are simple, repetitive and closely supervised to situations where complex problem resolution is a frequent requirement.


This factor evaluates the nature of the position's authority and involvement in managing the organisation's resources.  It includes the influence of the position's advice and accountability for results of decisions.


This subfactor is measured in terms of the resources for which the position is primarily held accountable or the impact made by the policy advice or service given.  It may be measured in monetary terms or on a policy / advice significance scale.

Independence and Influence

This subfactor focuses on the position's level of accountability and independence in the commitment of resources, provision of advice or delivery of services.  It measures the degree of freedom of the position in it being able to design or deliver the required service/product or information.  It also contains an examination of the extent to which the position is able to influence the quality and outcomes of the service/product/information to a client. 


The involvement subfactor is concerned with the nature of the position's accountability for the management of, or influence over, organisation resources and services.  It measures the extent to which the position is partly or wholly accountable for the provision of complete and accurate service.  For example, one consideration might be whether the position has accountability for a particular resource/service fully delegated to it or shared with other positions.  The service could be provided to the position's supervisor, others in the University or to external customers/clients.