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APA Referencing guide

Academic conventions and copyright law require that you acknowledge when you use the ideas of others. In most cases, this means stating which book or journal article is the source of an idea or quotation.

This guide draws from the American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).Washington, DC: Author. 

University policy mandates the use of the APA Style defined by this referencing guide.

On this page:

List of References

At the end of your essay, place a list of the references you have cited in the text. Arrange this in alphabetical order of authors' surnames, and then chronologically (earliest publication date first) for each author where more than one work by that author is cited. The author's surname is placed first, followed by initials or first name, and then the year of publication is given. If the list contains more than one item published by the same author(s) in the same year, add lower case letters immediately after the year to distinguish them (e.g. 1983a). These are ordered alphabetically by title disregarding any initial articles (a, an or the).

  • The reference list includes only the sources you have used in any submission. APA Style requires reference lists, not bibliographies.
  • The reference list begins a new page with the centred heading - References
  • Double-space all reference entries.
  • Reference list entries should be indented half an inch (five to seven spaces) on the second and subsequent lines of the reference list for every entry - a hanging indent is the preferred style. (i.e. entries should begin flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented).
  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author as the letters appear (e.g. M, Mac, MacD, Mc).
  • If there is no author, the title moves to the author position (filed under the first significant word of the title). If the title in this instance begins with numerals, spell them out.
  • States and territories are abbreviated in the location section of the publication information. For U.S. states, use the official two-letter postal service abbreviation (e.g. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill). Spell out country names if outside Australia or the United States.

Reference list examples

Books (print and online)

General forms (when DOIs are assigned, use them):

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxx

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from xxxxxxxxxxxx database.

Include subtitles. All titles must be italicised.

Information about editions (if other than the first), series, volume numbers or chapter page ranges should be included in parentheses ( ) after the title - not in italics but before the full stop.

Other descriptive information may also follow the title and any parenthetical information in brackets [ ] also before the full stop.

Type Examples
Online books

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique name assigned by the International DOI Foundation that provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet. When a DOI is available, no further retrieval information is needed to locate the content.

Leaver, B. L., Ehrman, M., & Shekhtman, B. (2005). Achieving success in second language acquisition. doi:10.1017/ CBO9780511610431

Schiraldi, G. R. (2000). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722

When a DOI is not available, use the URL.

Burton, R. (1832). The anatomy of melancholy. Retrieved from

Database information may be given for books (monographs) of limited circulation (e.g. from the University's database subscriptions).

Nazareth, L. (2007). The leisure economy: How changing demographics, economics, and generational attitudes will reshape our lives and our industries [Monograph]. Retrieved from Books24x7 database.

Use "Available from" when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material (rather than to the material itself).

Tyler, G. W. (n.d.). Evolution in the systems age. Available from

Books downloaded to mobile devices (without a DOI).

Ware, C. (2010). Cottage by the sea [Kindle version]. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks Landmark.

Tzu, S. (2011). The art of war [Kobo version]. Berkeley, CA: Shambhala.

Up to seven authors

List all authors names.

Calder, A. (2009). Compliance for green IT: A pocket guide. Cambridgeshire: IT Governance.

Bernstein, D. K., & Tiegerman, E. (1989). Language and communication disorders in children (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merill.

Curwen, B., Palmer, S., & Ruddell, P. (2000). Brief cognitive behaviour therapy (Brief Therapies Series). London: Sage.

More than seven authors

List the first six and then the last.

Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L., Anderman, E. M., Freeman, K. E., Gheen, M., ... Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning scales (PALS). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

In-text: (Midgley et al., 2000).

Edited books

General form:

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Roy, M. J. (Ed.). (2006). Novel approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (NATO Security Through Science Series). Amsterdam: IOS.      

Grubb, M., & Neuhoff, K. (Eds.). (2006). Emissions trading & competitiveness: Allocations, incentives and industrial competitiveness under the EU emissions trading scheme. London: Earthscan.

Article or chapter in an edited book or an encyclopedia

General form:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book  (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Treasure, D. C., Lemyre, P. N., Kuczka, K. K., & Standage, M. (2007). Motivation in elite sport: A self-determination perspective. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp.153-166). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Bergmann, I. (1997). Attention deficit disorder. In The new Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Cormier, L. S. (1985). Action responses. In Interview strategies for helpers (2nd ed., pp. 114-118, 121). Monterey, CA: Brooks.

Dadds, M. R., James, R. C., Barrett, P. M., & Verhulst, F. C. (2004). Diagnostic issues. In T. H. Ollendick & J. S. March (Eds.), Phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A clinician's guide to effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions (Part 1, pp. 3-33). Retrieved from ebrary database.

Individual chapters may have their own DOI.

Jacobs, G. M., & Hall, S. (2002). Implementing cooperative learning. In J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.),  Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 52-58). doi:10.1017/CBO9780511667190.009

No authors or editors

If there are no authors or editors, move the title to that position.

Psychological effects of cocaine and crack addiction: A survey of the psychological side of so-called "designer drugs". (1999). Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House.

In text, use a few words of the title (in italics), or the whole title if it is short, in place of an author name in the citation: (Psychological effects, 1999).

If a work is signed "Anonymous", begin the entry with the word Anonymous as if it were a true name.

Author as publisher

American Psychiatric Association. (2001). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Group authors

Full official names of group authors such as associations or government agencies should be used. Parent bodies precede subdivisions. File by the first significant word.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). Measures of Australia's progress (Catalogue No. 1370.0). Canberra: Author.  Church of England. Archdeaconry of Maidstone. (1877). The Church in its divine constitution and office, and in its relations with the civil power: A  charge delivered to  the clergy of the Archdeaconry of Maidstone at the ordinary visitation in may 1877; with notes (Talbot Collection of British Pamphlets). Retrieved from itsdivin00chur

National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia). Health Care Committee. Expert Panel on Mental Health. (1991). Homelessness and severe mental disorders: Report of the Health Care Committee Expert Panel on Mental Health (Monograph series) (National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) Health Care Committee No. 2). Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Queensland. Department of Corrective Services. Women's Policy Unit. (2000). Profile of female offenders under community and custodial supervision in Queensland. Brisbane: Author.

United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. (1988). The health consequences of smoking: Nicotine addiction; a report of the Surgeon General (DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 88-8406). Rockville, MD: Office of Smoking and Health.

World Bank. (2008). Textbooks and school library provision in secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank Working Paper No. 126. Africa Human Development Series). Retrieved from EBL database.

Translators and illustrators

Levy-Leboyer, C. (1982). Psychology and environment (D. Cantor and I. Griffiths, Trans.). Beverley Hills, CA: Sage. (Original work published 1979)

The Publication manual does not include examples for including illustrators but the following format would be consistent.

Reesink, M. (1980). The princess who always ran away (F. Tresy, Illus.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Journal and newspaper articles

General forms (when DOIs are assigned, use them):

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title,

volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title,

volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title,

volume number(issue number), page numbers.

The issue number of the journal is included if the journal is paginated by issue rather than if there is continuous pagination throughout the entire volume.

Type Examples
Journal articles with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique name assigned by the International DOI Foundation that provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet.

When a DOI is available, no further retrieval information is needed to locate the content.

Make every effort to locate the DOI - it may not be immediately obvious.

Radford, M. (2001). Aesthetic and religious awareness among pupils: Similarities and differences. British Journal of Music  Education, 18(2), 151-159. doi:10.1017/s0265051701000249

Rindermann, H., & Ceci, S. J. (2009). Educational policy and country outcomes in international cognitive competence studies. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(6), 551-568. doi:10.111/j1745-6924. 2009.01165.x

Online journal articles without a DOI (when a DOI is not available)








Online newspaper articles.

If no DOI is assigned, give the URL of the journal home page if the article is available there.

Even if you obtain your article from an online database or another source, try to locate the URL of the journal's home page that provides access to the article.

Russell-Bowie, D. (2010). Cross-national comparisons of background and confidence in visual arts and music education of pre-service primary teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(4), 65-78. Retrieved from

Voogt, J. (2010). A blended in-service arrangement for supporting science teachers in technology integration. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 18(1), 83-109. Retrieved from

If you are unable to locate the DOI or the journal's home page and the article was obtained from one of the University's limited circulation database subscriptions, use the URL for the journal's entry/search page within the database (or the database's overall search page if that is not available).

Powell, D. E. (1990). Home-based intervention of preschoolers with emotional disturbances and autism. Preventing School Failure, 34(4), 41-45. Retrieved from

Give the URL of the article.

McMahon, S. (2010, July 19). Fund new Victorian era. Herald Sun. Retrieved from

Newspaper articles from a database (if the article is not available from the newspaper's home/search page). Give the URL of the database's entry/search page. Include page number(s) if available.

Susskind, A. (1986, September 2). Academic blast for English class texts. Sydney Morning Herald, 1. Retrieved from|nep=hp


Print articles without a DOI

Coltheart, M., & Prior, M. (2006). Learning to read in Australia. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 11(4), 157-164.

If a magazine or newsletter does not use volume numbers, include the month, season or other designation with the year.

Beemster, M. (2008, December). Saving the Southern Bell Frog. Australian Landcare, 27-29.

For daily or weekly newspapers, include the day and precede the page numbers with p. or pp.

Parker, K. (2008, December 3). Plea for languages. Koori Mail, pp. 19-20.

Murray, E. (2001, May 9). Refugee crisis! [Letter to the editor]. Weekend Australian, p. A13.

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, pp. A12, A14, A16-A17.

For articles with no identified author, in text use a short title in double quotation marks (or the full title if it is short) for the parenthetical citation: ("New Drug", 1993, July 15). See the citing in text section of this guide for more detail.

Up to seven authors

List all authors names.

Dyer, B., Pizzorno, C. C., Qu, K., Valach, L., Marshall, S. K., & Young, R. A. (2010). Unconscious processes in a career counselling case: An action-theoretical perspective. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 38(3), 343-62. doi:10.1080/15388220.2010.483182

More than seven authors

List the first six and then the last.

Vaillancourt, T., Trinh, V., McDougall, P., Duku, E., Cunningham, L., Cunningham, C., ... Short, K. (2010). Optimizing population screening of bullying in school-aged children. Journal of School Violence, 9(3), 233-250. doi:10.1080/03069885.1010.482395

In-text: (Vaillancourt et al., 2010).

No authors

If there is no author, move the article title to the author position.

In brief. (2010). Harvard Heart Letter, 20(12), 7. Retrieved from

In-text: ("In brief", 2010).

If a work is signed "Anonymous", begin the entry with the word Anonymous as if it were a true name.

Group authors

Full official names of group authors such as associations or government agencies should be used. Parent bodies precede subdivisions. File by the first significant word.

Australia. Department of Family and Community Services. (2003, Spring-Summer). The role of families in an ageing Australia. Family Matters, (66), 46-53. Retrieved from

British Medical Association. (2007). British Medical Association expert witness guidance. Clinical Risk, 13(4), 143-146. doi:10.1258/13562620778125112

University of Queensland. Department of Social Work.(1998). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: Current policy issues. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 26(1), 18-24.

Reviews, peer commentary and abstracts

Identify the type of medium being reviewed in [ ] brackets (including author names) as required.

If the details of the item being reviewed are clear from the title of the review, no additional explanatory material in brackets is needed.

If the review is untitled, use the bracketed information as the title.

Boyd, W. (2010). Man as an island. [Review of the book William Golding, by John Carey]. Retrieved from

Morris, S. (2008). Henry Giroux - urgently necessary and necessarily urgent: An essay review [Review of the book Against the terror of neoliberalism: Politics beyond the age of greed]. Education Review, 11(3). Retrieved from

Handler, L. (1996). John Exner and the book that started it all: A review of "The Rorschach systems". Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(3), 650-658. Retrieved from

Harrington, J. J. (2008). [Review of the book The blackboard and the bottom line: Why schools can't be businesses, by L. Cuban]. Retrieved from

Barr, H. (2006). DVD review. [Review of the DVD Patient voices, produced by Pilgrim Projects and the NHS Clinical Governance Team, 2005]. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 20(2), 195. doi:10.1080/13561820600600782

Brooks, B. L., Sherman, M. S., & Strauss, E. (2010). Test review: NEPSY-II: A developmental neuropsychological assessment, second edition. [Review of the test NEPSY-II, by M. Korkman, U. Kirk & S. Kemp]. Child Neuropsychology, 16(1), 80-101. doi:10.1080/09297040903146966

Ackerman, J. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2010). The purpose-driven life: Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010). [Peer commentary on the journal article "Rennovating the pyramid of needs: Contemporary extensions built upon ancient foundations"].  Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 323-326. doi:10.1177/1745691610369472

Colliver, J. A. (2002). Commentary on Cicchetti's "Reliability of peer review". Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 14(3),142-143. Retrieved from

Abstract as an original source.

Pedder, D., & Opfer, V. D. (2010). Planning and organisation of teachers' Continuous Professional Development in schools in England [Abstract]. Curriculum Journal, 21(4), 433. doi:10.1080/09585176.2010.529652

Lim, J. M. (2010). Commenting on research results in applied linguistics and education: A comparative genre-based  investigation. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9(4), 280. Abstract retrieved from

Web documents and sites

As with any published reference, the goals of a citation to online material are to credit the author and to enable the reader to find the material.

When citing Internet sources, observe the following guidelines:

  • Follow previous sections for format of author, date, and title elements.
  • The date element should indicate the year of publication or, if the source undergoes regular revision, the most recent update.
  • Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited; whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages.
  • Include retrieval dates where the source material is likely to change over time.
  • Provide addresses that work where possible.

When citing entire websites, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in the text only (e.g. Comprehensive information about the University can be found at, or, the University of Southern Queensland website ( gives comprehensive information). Specific information from a site, or parts of a site, need to be cited as follows:

Type Examples
Author and date known

General form (include a retrieval date if the source material is likely to change over time):

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2011).  Australia's health 2004. Retrieved from

Allen, D. (2004). Dealing with your meeting notes. Retrieved from

American Psychological Association. (2008). HIV Office on Psychology Education (HOPE). Retrieved June 24, 2008, from

No author given

General form:

Title of work. (year). Retrieved month day, year, from source.

Psychological perspectives (n.d.). Retrieved June 2, 2001, from

Other electronic media

  • Follow previous sections for format of author, date, and title elements.
  • The date element should indicate the year of publication or, if the source undergoes regular revision, the most recent update.
  • After the title of the work, insert in brackets as part of the title element (i.e., before the period) the type of medium for the material.
  • A retrieval or availability statement replaces the location and name of the publisher typically provided for text references. Use "Available from" when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material (rather than to the material itself).
  • Include retrieval dates where the source material is likely to change over time (e.g. Wikis).

See also, the audiovisual section of this guide for some examples not included here.

Type Examples
Theses or dissertations

Retrieved from a database.

Murray, B. P. (2008). Prior knowledge, two teaching approaches for metacognition: Main idea and

summarization strategies in reading (Doctoral dissertation, Fordham University, New York).  Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. (AAT 3302116) Retrieved from an institutional or personal Web site.

McDonald, J. (2007). The role of online discussion forums in supporting learning in higher education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Queensland). Retrieved from

Annual reports

BHP Billiton. (2007). 2007 BHP Billiton annual report. Retrieved from

Fact sheets, brochures and press releases

Florek, S. (2003). Megafauna extinction: Patterns of extinction [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from 

Australian Museum. (2003). Concretions, thunder eggs and geodes [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from 

Xerox Corporation. (2004). Looks small, acts big: The Xerox Phaser 3150 personal laser printer for business [Brochure].Retrieved from 

Apple Inc. (2007). iPhone delivers up to eight hours of talk time [Press release]. Retrieved from 

Presentation slides

OWL at Purdue University. (2004). Conquering the comma [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from,1,ConqueringtheComma


When referring to information gained from images:

Human skeleton [Image]. (2011). Retrieved from

Saudi Arabia [Topographic map]. (2009). Retrieved from 

Tunbridge, D. I. (2003). Volunteers of the ACT Bushfire Service lighting a back-burn on the Mount Franklin Road, Brindabella Ranges, on the night of 11/12 January 2003 [Digital photograph]. Retrieved from 

Try to be consistent when specifying the medium in brackets [ ], immediately after the title.

Message posted to newsgroups, online forums, discussion groups or electronic mailing lists

Moore, R. (2006, October 29). Survey of test subjects [Newsgroup message]. Retrieved from  news://sci.psychology.consciousness 

Blaire, T. (2007, January 20). Transition in leadership [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from the Politics and Government electronic mailing list:

For personal email, refer to personal communication in the section on unpublished works.Include the name of the list if the information is not part of the URL.


Self-study: Broadening the concepts of participation and program support. (2007). Retrieved June 18, 2008, from the Adult Literacy Education (ALE) Wiki:

Audio podcasts

Hutcheon, J. (2008, June 15). Jane Hutcheon reflects on life in London [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Curtis, B., & Diez, M. (2008). Intermediate Spanish podcast 42: La Mafia [Audio podcast]. Available from

Video podcasts

Give the name and, in parentheses, the function of the originator or primary contributors (the director or the producer, or both).

National Geographic Society. (Producer). (2008, May 19). Chimp memory beats humans' [Video podcast]. Retrieved


Early Childhood Australia. (Producer). (2010). Intentional teaching and the Early Years Learning Framework with Judy Radich [Video podcast]. Available from

Holland, A. (Producer), & Harris, H. (Director). (2008, June 12). Bog man [Video podcast]. Retrieved from ABC:

Streaming videos

Sarra, C. (2010). Elders and community [Video]. Retrieved from

Cambridge Educational. (Producer). (2011). Alcohol and the family: Breaking the chain [Video]. Retrieved from 

William James: The psychology of possibility (Giants of  Psychology) [Video]. (2011). Available from


Interviews that are not retrievable should be cited in text as a personal communication (including month, day, year) and not included in the reference list (see section on unpublished works).

Hughes, R. (Interviewer), & Cilento, D. (Interviewee). (2000, June 20). Diane Cilento [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from

Blog posts

Bedford, T. (2008, June 12). Re: Got a problem using EndNote?

Let us know here [Web log comment]. Retrieved from

McGarry, A. (2008, June 13). China's pain fires Olympic dream [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Video blog posts (e.g. Youtube)

BridgeTEFL. (2007, October 5). TEFL online tutorial: Teaching grammar in context [Video file]. Video posted to

Westrom, M. (2009, June 18). Psychology - short and long term memory [Video file]. Video posted to

Computer programs, software, or programming languages












Tools and applications.

Reference list entries are not necessary for standard off-the-shelf software and programming languages. Provide entries for specialized software or programs with limited distribution.

In text, give the name of the software, the version number and year.

Do not italicise the names of software, programs, or languages.

If an individual has proprietary rights to the software, name him or her as the author; otherwise, treat such references as unauthored works.

Immediately after the title and version, identify with a source type such as [Computer program], [Computer language], or [Computer software].

If no version number is available, include the retrieval date.

If the program can be downloaded or ordered from the web, give this information in the publisher position.

Schoonjans, F. (2008). MedCalc Statistical Software (Version [Computer software]. Retrieved from 3D2F.COM Software Directory:

Accurate Personality Test [Computer software]. (2007). Retrieved June 19, 2008, from


CultureGPS lite (Version 1.13) [Computer software].

(2011). Retrieved from

Pages (Version 1.5) [Computer software]. (2011). Retrieved from  

Scott, C. (2011). Treasure hunt - the interactive boardgame (Version 1.1) [Computer software]. Retrieved from

Data sets

twins.dta - twins study (life characteristics in midlife) (UCLA Statistics Data Sets) [Data file]. 2003. Retrieved from

Government of Southern Sudan. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Directorate of Planning and Budgeting. (2010). South Sudan 2010 secondary data (2010 Annual School Census) [Data file].  Retrieved from  

Audiovisual and other media

Type Examples
Motion pictures

General form: Producer, A A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Grazer, B. (Producer), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Motion picture]. USA: Universal Studios.

Television programs

Television program.

Campbell, C. (Executive producer). (2011, February 9). The 7pm project [Television program]. Melbourne, Vic: Network TEN. Television series.

Gunton, M. (Executive producer). (2009). Life [Television series]. United Kingdom: BBC Natural History Unit.

Television series edisode.

Fairfax, F. (Writer), Mulholland, T., & Rich, J. (Directors). (2005). The curse of Tutankhamun [Television series episode]. In P. Dolling [Executive producer], Egypt: Rediscovering a lost world. United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Corporation.

Videos and DVDs

Strang, G. (1992). The teaching of calculus: Careful  changes (Selected Lectures in Mathematics) [Videocassette]. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society.

The self: Testing and intelligence (Discovering Psychology) [DVD]. (2001). Boston, MA: WGBH Educational  Foundation.

Annunziata, J. (2007). Play therapy with a 6-year-old [DVD]. Available from

Music recordings

General form: Writer, A. (copyright year). Title of the song or music  [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (date of recording if different from copyright date)

Badnews, U. R. (1927). We only live twice [Recorded by P. Murray]. On Resurrection [CD]. Sandgate, Qld: Ibis Records. (1999)

Williamson, J. (2003). The last of the pioneers. On Home among the gum trees [CD]. Pyrmont, NSW: EMI Australia.

In text, include the side, band or track numbers.

"The Last of the Pioneers" (Williamson, 2003, track 5) ...

Audio recordings

Bacon, T. (Writer). (1997). Amazing journeys (Literacy Links Plus Fluent D) [Audiocassette]. Auckland, NZ: Shortland.

Costa, P. T. (Speaker). (1998). Personality and continuity (Audio Recording No. 207-433-88A-B) [Audiocassette]. Washington, DC: American  Psychological Association.

Smith, D. (2001, August 16). Airline nightmare (Audio Recording from Nightline series) [Audiocassette].  Brisbane, Qld: Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Australian poetry live: Classics from the Hazel de Berg collection [Audiocassette]. (1996). Canberra, ACT: National Library of Australia.

Other non-book media

Specify the medium type or description of the form in brackets [ ], immediately after the title. Capitalize the first letter of the notation. Be consistent when specifying formats.

Media formats can include, but are not limited to, the following:

Motion picture, Television program, Television series, Television series episode, CD, Record, Cassette, Audiocassette, Audiorecord, Audiotape, DVD, Videotape, Videorecording, Videocassette, Computer software, Data file, Chart, Flashcard, Game, Picture, Transparency, Slide, Realia, Kit, Filmstrip, Print, Work of art, Microform, etc.

Fractions are as easy as pie: A game of common fractions [Game]. (1985). Baltimore, MD: Media Materials.

Zupelz - orange: Stimulating logical thinking - one puzzle at a time [Flashcard]. Narangba, Qld: Origo Education.

Shaping the future: Working with the under-threes [Kit]. (2000). Buckingham, United Kingdom: Open University Press.

Nervous system [Picture]. (2006). Burleigh Heads: Network Education Australia.

Measuring cylinders [Realia]. (n.d.). England: Gradplex.

Hill, M. (1985). Australia's first people (Social Studies Wallcharts) [Chart]. Sydney, NSW: McGraw-Hill.

Leadership Research Institute. (1999). Creative leadership [Brochure]. Toowoomba, Qld: Author.

Legislation and legal authorities

For more comprehensive information and other juridictions, see the Bluebook -

The bluebook: A uniform system of citation (19th ed.). (2010).

Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law Review Association.

Citations should be made to the print source unless an electronic source is designated the official version (then for Internet and online sources use Citation, URL. or if it is from a commercial electronic database, use Citation (Name of the Database).).

The following examples are for the Australian jurisdiction only.

Type Examples
Legislation (includes Acts and Bills)

General form for Acts: <Short Title of the Act in italics> <year in italics> (Jurisdiction abbreviation) <subdivision if relevant>

(Country abbreviation).

Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) (Austl.). Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) s. 15 (Austl.).

General form for Bills: <Bill Name> <year> (Jurisdiction abbreviation) (Country abbreviation).

Interactive Gambling Bill 2001 (Cth) (Austl.).

Legal authorities (cases)

General form for cases: <Case Name in italics> (year) <volume number> <reporter abbreviation> <first page> (Country


Carey v. Price 2005 132 ALR 255 (Austl.).

Mabo v. Queensland 1988 166 CLR 186 (Austl.).

Unpublished works

Type Examples
Personal communication

Personal communication may be unpublished lecture notes, letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations, email or messages from non-archived discussion groups or bulletin boards, photographs, images, tables or data; all these sources are usually non-recoverable from the reader's perspective and are not to be included in the reference list, but should be cited in text as they are referred to.

Cite personal correspondence in text only.

Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible:

O. Stone (personal communication, March 29, 2001)

(M. A. Toby, personal photograph, May 2, 1987)

Lecture notes are treated as personal communication if they are unpublished (i.e. not copied and distributed in print or on the web with the instructor's permission).

Doctoral dissertations and Master's theses (unpublished)

Swinton, M. A. (1984). Family stress in phenylketonuria  (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Auckland, New Zealand.

Online articles not yet formally published

In preprint archives, articles are posted online ahead of print and are not yet indexed. Use the DOI or the exact URL.

Charles, S. J., & Hogan, N. (in press). Dynamics of wrist rotation. Journal of Biomechanics. doi:10.1016/j.biomech.2010.11.016

Vickers, P. (in press). Theory eliminativism as a methodological tool. Philosophy of Science. Retrieved from      

Advance online publications are generally peer reviewed but may not be copyedited or formatted for final production. If there is no DOI assigned, give the URL of the journal home page.

Diekelmann, S., Buchel, C., Born, J., & Rasch, B. (2011). Labile or stable: Opposing consequences for memory when reactivated during waking and sleep. Nature Neuroscience. Advance online publication. doi:10.1038/nn.2744

Update your references and refer to final versions, if possible, before you submit your work.


General form.  Author, A. A. (year). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript [or "Manuscript submitted for publication", or "Manuscript in preparation"].

Geisel, T. S. (n.d.). All sorts of sports. Unpublished manuscript.

Informally published or self-archived work.

Benchimol, G. (2007). Prospects for innovating organisations. Retrieved from 

Proceedings and technical reports

When citing from a mongraph (book), use the same format as for a book or book chapter. Regularly published proceedings use the same format as journal or periodical articles.

Type Examples
Published proceedings in book form

Capitalise the names of symposia, conferences and meetings.

If there are more than two editors a comma is placed before the ampersand.

Hughes, H. (2002). Information literacy with an international focus. In K. Appleton, C. Macpherson, & D. Orr (Eds.), International Lifelong Learning Conference: Refereed papers from the 2nd International Lifelong Learning Conference (pp.208-213). Rockhampton: Central Queensland University Press.

Hirata, J. (2005). How Should happiness guide policy? Why gross national happiness is not opposed to democracy. In Rethinking development: Local pathways to global wellbeing; the Second International Conference on Gross National Happiness. Antigonish, Nova Scotia: St. Francis Xavier University. Retrieved from

Davelaar, E. J., & Usher, M. (2004). An extended buffer model for active maintenance and selective updating. In Bowman, H. & Labiouse, C. (Eds.), Connectionist models of cognition and perception II: proceedings of the Eighth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (pp. 3-14). River Edge, NJ: World Scientific. Retrieved from ebrary database.

Blascovich, J., & McCall, C. (2010). Attitudes in virtual reality. In J. P. Forgas, J. Cooper, & W. D. Crano (Eds.), The psychology of attitudes and attitude change (Sydney Symposium in Social Psychology). London: Psychology Press.

Proceedings published regularly

Treat regularly published proceedings as periodicals.

Kozkovski, O., & Van Strien, S. (2009). Local connectivity and quasi-conformal rigidity of non-renormalizable polynomials. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 99(2), 275-296. doi:10.1112/plms/pdn055

Conference papers and symposium contributions

For symposium contributions, papers and poster presentations, give the month with the year.

Gorman, B. (2009, March). A treatment plan: Some hopes (pipe dreams?) and suggestions for effective statistical education. In B. Gorman (Chair), The crisis in the statistical education of psychologists. Symposium conducted at the 24th annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

Liu, C., Wu, D., Fan, J., & Nauta, M. M. (2008, November). Does job complexity predict job strains? Paper presented at the 8th Biannual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, Valencia, Spain.

Rosenshine, B. (1997). The case for explicit, teacher-led, cognitive strategy instruction. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from http://apaa.asu./edu/barak/barak1.html


Dickens, A. (2003). Working with the community. Paper pesented at the 8th Australian Institute of Family Studies Conference, Melbourne. Abstract retrieved from http://www./      

Technical and research reports

General form: Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher.

This format can be used for issue briefs, working papers and other corporate documents. Include the appropriate document number where available.

For online reports, identify the publisher in the retrieval statement unless the publisher is also identified as the author.

Queensland School Curriculum Council. (2000). Consistency of teacher judgement (Research Report). Brisbane: Author.

Ford, M., Gurney, A., Heyhoe, E., & Gunasekera, D. (2007). Energy security, clean technology development and climate change: Addressing the future challenges in APEC (ABARE Research Report 07.14). Retrieved from Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Eonomics website:

Australian Human Resources Institute. (2008). The parent trap: The parental leave debate (Research Report). Retrieved from

Aermark, L. (2011). Spectral and Hardy inequalities for some sub-elliptical operators (Research Reports in Mathematics Number 1, 2011). Retrieved from Stockholm University, Department of Mathematics, Research Reports in Mathematics website:

Database information may be given for monographs from the University's limited circulation database subscriptions.

Bramley, G. (2010). Analysis of youth offending team inspection reports (LGA Research Report). Retrieved from ERIC database.

Australian Furniture Research and Development Institute, & Standards Australia. (1997). Office desks (Australian/ New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4442:1997). Retrieved from Standards On-Line Premium database.

USQ Course materials

Type Examples
Introductory and study books

EDC1400 Foundations of curriculum and pedagogy: Introductory book. (2011). Toowoomba: University of Southern Queensland.

PSY2030 Developmental psychology: Study book. (2011). Toowoomba: University of Southern Queensland.

Lecture notes and handouts

These are treated like books if they are published, but like personal communication if they are your own notes or unpublished. Lecture notes are considered published if they have been copied and distributed in print or on the web with the instructor's permission.

Lewis, M. (2011). EDC1300 Perspectives in education: Course notes.Toowoomba: University of Southern Queensland.

Customized publications and selected readings (print)

If you need to cite from a book of readings, use the date for that publication. If page numbers are required in text, use the book of readings page numbers, not the page numbers from the original source.

Mishkin, F. S., & Eakins, S. G. (2012). Overview of the financial system. In D. Pensiero & G. Adkins (Comps.), FIN8201 Finance for executives, (pp. 55-75). Sydney, NSW: Pearson Australia. (Reprinted from Financial markets and institutions, 7th ed., pp. 55-75, Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education)

Thompson, W. R., & Grusec, J. (2010). Studies of early experience. In R. Pauley (Comp.), Early experience and cognitive development: Selected readings (2nd ed., pp. 100-190). Toowoomba: University of Southern Queensland. (Reprinted from Carmichael’s manual of child psychology, 3rd ed., vol. 1, pp. 565-654, by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York: Wiley)

Online course materials







Audio and video (including Breeze presentations).

Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited; whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages.

If the item has no obvious author, start with the title.

Terry, P. C. (2011). Module 5 - group and team dynamics. Retrieved November 10, 2011, from

Outline of inquiry. (2011). Retrieved November 15, 2011, from

Hendry, L. (2011). Visual Pattern perception - shapes, spatial frequency and Gestalt laws [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from


 Petersen, S. (2011). Classroom reading pedagogy: Reading strategies [Video podcast]. Retrieved from 

Zimbardo, P. (1989). The responsive brain (Discovering  Psychology) [Video podcast]. Retrieved from

BBC World Service. (2011). The family (Family, Sex & Society) [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Series titles included in the above two examples.

Online course readings

For readings redirected to websites, pages or databases, follow the instructions outlined in the books, journal articles and web documents sections of this guide. Otherwise, follow the following style for scanned or copied documents that indicate "" or "" in the URL.

Journal articles.

Arnold, T. (2001). Achieving playtime positives. Journal of Early Childhood, 5(4), 117-121. Retrieved from

Keeling, R. (2006). The Bologna Process and the Lisbon Agenda: The European Commission's expanding role

in higher education discourse. European Journal of  Education, 41(2), 203-223. Retrieved from

Book chapters.

Shore, R. (1997). What have we learned. In Rethinking the brain: New insights into early development (pp. 15-52). Retrieved


Tuczay, C. (2005). Trance, prophets and diviners in the Middle Ages. In E. Pocs (Ed.), Communicating with the spirits: Christian demonology and popular mythology (pp. 215-233). Retrieved from

If a DOI is evident, use that in place of the retrieval statement.

Dafni, A. (2007). The supernatural characters and powers of sacred trees in the Holy Land. Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine, 3, 10-16. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-3-10

 Reference from dictionary definitions/encyclopedic entries

Online drug information 

Treat the webpage of such a resource as MIMS or AMH or Nursing Consult as an excerpt from the source, with no author. Give the home or index page URL for the reference source.

Title of webpage entry. (year of last update or copyright year). In Title of Reference Source (edition). Retrieved from URL

Amitriptyline hydrochloride [Endep]. (October 2015). In MIMS Online (Australian edition). Retrieved from


Encyclopedias and dictionaries Give the home or index page URL for reference works.

Claiborn, C. D. (2008). Psychotherapy. In D. Hoiberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia Britannica online (Academic ed.). Retrieved from

Psychotherapy. (2008). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from  

Psychotherapy. (2008). In Retrieved from

How to cite references within the text of an assignment

Use the author-date method of citation for quotations (exact words of another author) and paraphrasing (summarising the words and ideas of one or more authors).

Every line in the work should be double-spaced including the headings, footnotes, quotations, references and figure captions. Triple- or quadruple- spacing may be applied in special circumstances such as before and after displayed items. Single- or one-and-a-half line spacing is never used except inside tables or figures.


Paraphrasing is when you summarise the ideas, concepts or words from the work or one or more authors.
Please note: changing only a few words from another author does not constitute paraphrasing.

Type Examples
If you are referring to the general theme of a book or article

Brown (1991) investigated the effects of ...

An investigation into the effects of maternal age

(Brown, 1991) found that ...

When to include page numbers

When paraphrasing or referring to an idea in another work, page or paragraph numbers are not required. But it can be helpful, for example when paraphrasing or referring to information or an idea that can be located on a particular page, quoting or referring to images, figures or data, or when a work is particularly long and page numbers might be useful for the reader.

Soil layers below the well tip contribute relatively little water (Kozeny, 1988, pp. 223-224).

Kozeny (1988, p. 223) found soil layers below the well tip contributed little.

When the authors of a source are not part of the formal sentence structure

Both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons.

Reviews of research on sport and reading have concluded that at least some types of reading behaviours are related to  higher levels of physical health (Austin, 1990; McGovern & Henderson, 2001; Wright & Morgan, 2001).

When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal sentence structure

The year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors.

Wright and Mander (2002) found that although there was a reduction in literacy, the difference was not statistically significant.

Group authors and abbreviations

The names of groups are usually spelled out each time they appear in text.

(University of Southern Queensland, 2009) University of Southern Queensland (2009)

Only abbreviate if the name is long, cumbersome and the abbreviation is familiar or easily understood.

First citation in text.

(Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR], 2008)

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, 2008)

Subsequent citations.

(UNHCR, 2008)

UNHCR (2008)

One or two authors

Cite the names every time the reference occurs:

Smythe and Jones (2001) found ... (first and subsequent citations) ... as has been shown (Smythe & Jones, 2001).

More than two authors

For three, four or five authors, cite all authors in the first instance, thereafter, only first author followed by "et al." (not underlined and with no stop after "et") and the year of publication.

Campbell, Brady, Bradley, and Smithson (1991)  found ... (first citation)

Campbell et al. (1991) found ... (subsequent citations) 

 Experiments confirmed the phenomenon (Campbell et al., 1991)

For with six or more authors, cite only the first author followed by "et al." and the year. In the list of references give all names up to and including six authors.

"and" or "&"?

In running text use "and" to join the names of multiple authors, but use an ampersand (&) inside parentheses.

Jones and Brady (1991) continued to find ...

The authors found the same result in the second and

third trials (Jones & Brady, 1991).

Citing multiple works by the same author at the same time

Arrange dates in order (oldest to newest). Use suffixes after the year when there are multiple publications from the same year. If the publication dates are same, the suffixes are assigned in the reference list where these kinds of references are ordered in alphabetical order by title (article, chapter or complete work).

Several studies (Jackson, 1999, 2001a, 2001b, 2005) revealed a similar outcome.

Primary authors with the same surname

Include the first author's initials in all text citations even if the year of publication differs.

T.R. Smith (2006) and B. E. Smith (2007) found that ...

J. J. Jackson and Robertson (2000) and E. M. Jackson and Johns (2005) reached the conclusion that ...

Secondary citations

You must acknowledge both the primary and secondary source of information. To do this, include the primary source first and then insert the words "as cited in" before the secondary source.

Cumming's (1980) study (as cited in Pauley, 1991) ...

This belief has been confirmed (Cumming, 1980, as cited in Pauley, 1991) ...

You do not need to source the primary or original work cited (e.g. Cumming, 1980) but the secondary source (e.g. Pauley, 1991) needs to be given in your list of references.

No author

When a citing a source in text that has no identified author, use a shortened title (or the full title if it is short) and year for the parenthetical citation.

The in text citation for the online source "New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure" would be ("New Drug," 2001).

Use double quotation marks for article titles, chapter titles or web page titles.

Italicize (without quotation marks) book titles. (Psychological effects, 1999)

For works designated as "Anonymous", cite in text as Anonymous followed by a comma and the date. (Anonymous, 2007)

Legislation (includes Acts and Bills)

The Equal Opportunity Act 1995 (Vic) prohibits ...

... the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) ...

... according to s. 15 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) ...

... Interactive Gambling Bill 2001 (Cth) ...

Legal authorities (cases)

Carey v. Price (2005)

Mabo v. Queensland (1992)


Quotations or quotes are when you use the exact words of another author or your own previously published work. Quotations must always be referenced with page numbers.

  • Quotations of less than 40 words (approximately) should form part of the text and be designated with double quotation marks.
  • With quotations of 40 or more words, DO NOT use quotation marks; set the quotation in an indented (about a half inch) free standing block of text. Use double-line-spacing to separate the quote from the text of your work.
Type Examples

Direct quotation

Less than 40 words.Always include the author, year, and page number(s) as part of the citation.

Students receiving "additional information literacy training achieved higher grades than students who  did not attend any skills' sessions" (Capel, 2002, p. 323).

40 or more words.

Although the groups contained different age groups, they  were not differentiated in the feasibility study: The intensive ESL program was enthusiastically supported by the administration and was popular with the young learners and their parents. Although the groups differed in age, measures of English and French proficiency and language aptitude administered at the outset of the experiment indicated that differences between the fourth and fifth year classes were non-significant (White, Horst, & Bell, October 2007); thus in the research reported here, we do not distinguish between the two groups. (Horst, White, & Bell, 2010, p. 334)

Do not omit or alter citations embedded within the quote. These embedded citations are not included in your list of references unless used as a primary source elsewhere in your work. In the above example, the 2010 article (where the entire quote comes from) is included in the list of references but the 2007 work mentioned within the quote is not, unless it is used as a source elsewhere in the work.

For additional paragraphs within the quotation, insert a double-line-spacing and indent the first line of each an additional half inch (five to seven spaces).

Specific parts of a source

Always give page numbers for quotations (if available). For sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number, if possible, preceded by the abbreviation 'para.'

(Zelow, 2001, para. 17)

(Broome & Davies, 1999, para. 5)

(Bray, 1999, chap. 3)

(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)

Images from other sources

Type Examples

Reproducing or adapting copyrighted photographs, images, tables and figures.

Tables and figures (including photgraphs and other images) should be numbered above in the order in which they are first mentioned in text. The title follows the number:

Table 7. Confidence Intervals With Upper and Lower Limits

In the text, refer to tables and figures by their number:

As shown in Table 7, there is a larger variation than we would expect.

For both print and electronic forms, acknowledge the author and copyright holder in the figure caption or in a note at the bottom of the reproduction.

Note. Reproduced from "Which methods are best suited to the production of high-quality research in

geography education?" by G. Butt, 2010, International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 19(2), p. 105. Copyright 2009 by Perks & Prestage.

Note. Adapted from Emissions trading & competitiveness: Allocations, incentives and industrial competitiveness under the EU Emisions Trading Scheme (p. 60), by M. Grubb and K. Neuhoff (Eds.), 2006, London: Earthscan. Copyright 2006 by J. Sijm, K. Neufoff and Y. Chen. 

If copyright permission footnotes are required, refer to the Publication manual.

Non-copyright or personal images or data sourced from others

For images, tables or data used with the permission of another party, treat as you would a personal communication. Cite in text only and do not include in the reference list.

Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible:

O. Stone (personal communication, March 29, 2001)

(M. A. Toby, personal photograph, May 2, 1987)

Items with a Creative Commons Licence

For items with a Creative Commons Licence, see the USQ Creative Commons Website for more information.



Creative Commons

Information about the Creative Commons Licence is entered directly after the item is used, within your assignment.

... (Zawacki-Richter, Hanft & Backer, 2011, p. 2). Used under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (

There is no need to include Creative Commons licensing information in your list of references at the end of the assignment. Reference the item as you would normally, according to its format. Information about Creative Commons Licences is to be included with your in-text citations only.

Publication dates

Type Examples

Using the year

For journals, books and audiovisual media, use the year.

Within the text - (Smith, 2007) or Smith (2007)

List of References - (2007)

Including the month, season or other designation

If a journal or newsletter does not use volume numbers, include the month, season or other designation with the year.

Within the text - (Jones, 2007, December) or Jones (2007, December)

List of References - (2007, December)

Including the day

For dailies and weeklies, include the day.

Within the text - (Brown, 2007, December 12) or Brown (2007, December 12)

List of References - (2007, December 12)

Works accepted for publication but not yet published.

Within the text - (Mills, in press) or Mills (in press)

List of References - (in press)

No date available.

Within the text - (Boon, n.d.) or Boon (n.d.)

List of References - (n.d.)

Additional Help

More information and additional guides

This guide draws from the:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual

of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).

Washington, DC: Author.

The aim of this guide is to provide basic referencing information. For more detailed information about how to write, structure and publish to APA standards, refer to the Publication manual.

This guide varies from the Publication manual in the treatment of journal articles held only in the University's database subsciptions (without DOIs), the online course readings repository and Creative Commons items.

Some other guides to APA referencing

  • USQ APA toolkit
  • USQ APA quiz
  • Curtin University APA referencing guide
  • Burton, L. (2010). An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology (3rd ed.). Milton, Qld: Wiley. (Call number 808.06615 Bur)
  • American Psychological Association. (2010). Mastering APA style: Student's workbook and training guide (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. (Call number 808.06615 Mas)

Please note: Whilst these referencing guides are offered to assist you to learn how to reference, University policy mandates the use of the APA style defined by this referencing guide. It is possible that you may access some online products that have the functionality to render citations in various styles. Please exercise care and ensure that your referencing complies with this USQ Library guide.

Need additional help applying this guide?

Contact the Library or consult the following:

  • American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. (Call number 808.06615 Pub).
  • APA style homepage

While the Library is not responsible for checking lists of references we can refer you to our referencing guides and the published manuals listed to help you ensure the accuracy of your referencing.

Help with assignment writing and referencing is also available from The Learning Centre.