Content

Harvard AGPS Referencing guide

Academic conventions and copyright law require that you acknowledge when you use the ideas of others. In most cases, this means stating which book or journal article is the source of an idea or quotation. 

This guide draws from the Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, Wiley Australia. 

University policy mandates the use of the Harvard Style (AGPS) defined by this referencing guide.

On this page:

List of references

At the end of your essay, place a list of the references you have cited in the text. This can simply be headed - References

Arrange this in alphabetical order of authors' surnames, and then chronologically (earliest publication date first) for each author where more than one work by that author is cited. The author's surname is placed first, followed by initials or first name, and then the year of publication is given. If the list contains more than one item published by the same author in the same year, add lower case letters immediately after the year to distinguish them (e.g. 1983a). These are ordered alphabetically by title disregarding any initial articles (a, an or the).

The expression n.d. can be used if no date of publication is apparent. If the place of publication is obvious from the publisher's name, it does not need to be repeated. The expression n.p. can be used if no place of publication is apparent. If required, the names of countries and states are best spelt out in full but standard shortened forms can be used.

Separate reference lists can be used at the end of each chapter or division for multi-author works, loose-leaf works, or works that might be read or produced piece by piece.

Reference list examples

Books (print and online)

Type Examples

One author

Chang, SS 2012, Exploring everyday things with R and Ruby, O'Reilly, Sebastopol, California.

Primoratz, I 2013, Terrorism: a philosophical investigation, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Series titles and edition statements (for editions other than the first) should be included.

Goldsworthy, J 2010, Parliamentary sovereignty: contemporary debates, Cambridge studies in constitutional law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Abbott, HP 2008, The Cambridge introduction to narrative, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Two or more authors

List all authors in the list of references. See the second part of this guide for how to cite in-text.

Kakadia, D & DiMambro, F 2004, Networking concepts and technology: a designer's resource, Sun Microsystems Press, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Flexer, RW, Baer, RM, Luft, P & Simmons, TJ 2008, Transition planning for secondary students with disabilities, 3rd edn, Pearson, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Edited books

 

If the role of an editor (or compiler, reviser or translator) is of primary importance, list the work under those names. Use abbreviations such as ed., eds, trans., rev., comp. and comps.

Brofenbrenner, U (ed.) 2005, Making human beings human: bioecological perspectives on human development, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.

Ahdar, R & Aroney, N (eds) 2010, Shari'a in the West, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

United Nations. Statistical Division (comp.) 1995, The world's women 1995: trends and statistics, United Nations, New York.

Chapters in edited books

Page numbers are not usually needed in the reference list (Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, p. 194).

Callaghan, J 2010, 'Singing teaching as a profession', in S Harrison (ed.), Perspectives on teaching singing: Australian vocal pedagogues sing their stories, Australian Academic Press, Bowen Hills, Queensland.

Shachar, A 2010, 'State, religion, and the family: the new dilemmas of multicultural accommodation', in R Ahdar & N Aroney (eds), Shari'a in the West, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

If however, page numbers are essential to accurately locating the source, or your instructor requires their inclusion, they can be presented as the final item of the citation (e.g. p. 10, pp. 19-25, pp. 21-6, pp. 21, 31-5).

Brandt, RB 2002, 'Defective newborns and the morality of termination', in J Arthur (ed.), Morality and moral controversies: readings in moral, social, and political philosophy, 6th edn, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, pp. 253-60.

Editions

The edition (if other than the first edition) is included after the main title.

Stewart, A 2009, Stewart's guide to employment law, 2nd edn, Federation Press, Annandale, New South Wales.

Triggs, B 1984, Tracks, scats and other traces: a field guide to Australian mammals, new edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Part of a series

The series title is included after the main title.

Muller, R & Turner, JR 2010, Project-oriented leadership, Advances in project management, Gower, Farnham, England.

Editions go after the series title.

Corrigan, T 2010, A short guide to writing about film, The short guide series from Pearson Longman, 7th edn, Longman, New York.

Anonymous (no author or editor given)

Start with the title.

The stage acquitted: being a full answer to Mr Collier, and other enemies of the drama 1996, Routledge/Thoemmes, London.

Conference proceedings

For papers collected and published as proceedings, include page numbers at the end of the citation.

Trump, A 1986, 'Power play', Proceedings of the third annual conference, International Society of Power Engineers, Houston, Texas, pp. 40-51.

Katsardi, V & Swan, C 2007, 'The importance of directionality in the evolution of large waves in intermediate and shallow water', Coastal engineering 2006, volume5: proceedings of the 30th international conference, San Diego, California, USA, 3-8 September 2006, World Scientific, River Edge, New Jersey, pp. 157-69.

Further description can be provided after the conference title if useful.

Zhang, J & Xi, W 2012, 'Optimal nonlinear damping for inelastic structures using dimensional analysis', 20th analysis and computation specialty conference 2012, proceedings of a meeting sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers held 29-31 March, Chicago, Illinois, Curran Associates, Red Hook, New York, pp.97-106.

Acknowledging editors, compilers, revisers or translators

If the author's role remains of primary importance, editors, compilers, revisers or translators can also be acknowledged. Use abbreviations such as ed., eds, trans., rev., comp. and comps.

Tolstoy, L 1930, What is art? and essays on art, trans. A Maude, Oxford University Press, London.

Mayakovsky, V 1942, Mayakovsky and his poetry, comp. H Marshall, Pilot Press, London.

Corporate authors

The jurisdiction is not usually given for government agencies but is indicated by the place of publication.

Department of Energy 1980, Projections of energy needs, HMSO, London. 

Office of the Aboriginal Land Commissioner 2001, Urapunga land claim no. 159, Parliamentary paper, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Canberra.

Xerox Corporation 1988, Xerox publishing standards: a manual of style and design, Watson-Guptil, New York.

Parent bodies precede subdivisions.

World Association of Veterinary Anatomists. International Committee on Avian Anatomical Nomenclature 1979, Nomina anatomica avium: an annotated anatomical dictionary of birds, Academic Press, London.

The same authors

Use the following order - single author entries followed by multiple author entries beginning with the same name (earliest dates first in each case).

A long dash (2-em, approximately equivalent to 4-6 hyphens in length) can be used to replace that part of the author entry which is repeated. There is no space immediately after the dash.

Chaffee, J 1991, Thinking critically, 3rd edn, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

------1998, The thinker's way: 8 steps to a richer life, Little, Brown and Company, Boston.

------, McMahon, C & Stout, B 2002, Critical thinking, thoughtful writing: a rhetoric with readings, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

For two or more works by the same author(s) in the same year, list in alphabetical order by title.

Lyon, H & Lyon, R 2002a, The circus, Elton Publications, Wembley Downs, Western Australia.

------2002b, Clowns, Elton Publications, Wembley Downs, Western Australia.

Edited works appear after authored works.

Olson, JS & Roberts, R 1990, Where the domino fell: America and Vietnam, 1945 to 1990, St. Martin's Press, New York.

------1998, My Lai: a brief history with documents, Bedford Books, Boston.

Olson, JS (ed.) 1993, The Vietnam War: handbook of the literature and research, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

------& Roberts, R (eds) 1990, American experiences, volume 2: 1877 to the present, Foresman/Addison-Wesley, Glenview, Illinois.

Online books

Author Year (of creation or last revision), Title, edition/version (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source (publisher, place), viewed Day Month Year,<URL either full location details or just the main site details>.

McClain, M & Roth JD 1999, Schaum's quick guide to writing great essays, McGraw-Hill, New York, viewed 17 January 2005,
<http://ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/unisouthernqld/Doc?id=5002145>.

Fitzgerald, FS 1920, This side of paradise, Scribner, New York, viewed 18 January 2005, <http://www.bartleby.com/115/>.

Chapters in an online book

Author Year (of creation or last revision), 'Chapter title', in book editor(s) (ed.), Book title, name and place of the sponsor of the source (publisher, place), viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.

Gould, SJ 2000, 'More things in Heaven and Earth', in H Rose & S Rose (eds), Alas, poor Darwin: arguments against evolutionary psychology, Harmony Books, NewYork, viewed 17 January 2005, <http://ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/unisouthernqld/Doc?id=10015543>.

Books downloaded to mobile devices

Ware, C 2010, Cottage by the sea, Kindle version, Sourcebooks Landmark, Naperville, Illinois.

Tzu, S 2011, The art of war, Kobo version, Shambhala, Berkeley, California.

Journal and newspaper articles

For journals, include the volume number, issue number or other identifier, and page numbers separated by commas where all these elements are available. If the journal issue has both a number and an identifier such as a month or quarter, choose one and use it consistently. If there is no volume number, the issue number or identifier should follow the journal title.

Follow the same principles for authors as outlined in the Books section.

Type Examples
Journal article, one author

When both volume and issue numbers are available.

Wong, K 2009, 'Rethinking the hobbits of Indonesia', Scientific American, vol. 301, no. 5, pp. 66-73.

Only an issue number.

Culotta, E 2008, 'Hobbit skull suggests a separate species', Science Now, no. 677, p. 2.

Other identifiers such as a month or quarter.

Hay, A 2008, 'Lovely bones: making sense of the Flores find', The Monthly, July, pp. 28-34.

Journal article, two or more authors

List all authors in the list of references.  See later section for citing in-text.

Jones, BE & Jones, SR 1987, 'Powerful questions', Journal of Power Engineering, vol. 1, no. 3, pp.10-8.

Gibberd, R, Snow, PT, Rice, PG & Patel, NB 1991, 'Nuclear power at what price?', The Bulletin, vol. 113, June 4, pp. 51-5.

Journal article, no author given

Put the journal title in the author position.

ATSIC News 2002, 'Aboriginal identity and the loss of certainty', vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 50-2.

Newspaper article

Popham, B 1987, 'Saving the future', Weekend Australian Magazine, 7-8 February, p. 10.

Newspaper article (print), no author All of the details are provided in the in-text citation and there is no need for an entry in the reference list.
Journal article on the WWW

Author Year, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Griffith, AI 1995, 'Coordinating family and school: mothering for schooling', Education Policy Analysis Archives, vol. 3, no. 1, viewed 12 February 1997, <http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa/>.

Full-text journal article from an electronic database

Author Year, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue, paging (if given), viewed Day Month Year, Name of database service or provider, Name of database, item number (if available).

Rasid, ZM & Parish, TS 1998, 'The effects of two types of relaxation training on students' levels of anxiety', Adolescence, vol. 33, no. 129, p. 99, viewed 23 September 2007, EBSCOhost MegaFILE Premier, Academic Search Complete, item: AN589758.

The Joanna Briggs Institute 2008, 'Management of constipation in older adults', Best Practice: Evidence Based Information Sheets for Health Professionals, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1-4, viewed 16 July 2008, JBI COnNECT, JBI Database of Best Practice Information Sheets, item: BP1138.

Gotzshe, PC & Johansen, HK 2008, 'House dust mite control measures for asthma', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008, no. 2, viewed 15 July 2008, The Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, item: CD001187.

No author - put the journal title in the author position.

Economist 2008, 'Charging ahead', vol. 387, no. 8594, p. 58, viewed 16 September 2008, EBSCOhost MegaFile Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, item: 34003939.

Newspaper article on the WWW

Author Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page number (if given), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Cleary, P & Lewis, S 2001, 'It's the end of a long boom', The Australian Financial Review, 8 March, viewed 8 March 2001, <http://afr.com/australia/2001/03/08/FFXIM9PU0KC.html>.

Newspaper article from an electronic database

Author Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page number (if given), viewed Day Month Year, Name of database service or provider, Name of database, item number (if available).

Pianin, E 2001, 'As coal's fortunes climb, mountains tremble in W.Va; energy policy is transforming lives', The Washington Post, 25 February, p. A03, viewed 8 March 2001, Electric Library Australasia.

No author - put the newspaper title in the author position.

Gold Coast Bulletin 2007, 'Democrats vow to fight Bush', 19 February, p. 12, viewed 16 September 2008, EBSCOhost MegaFILE Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, item: 20070219B012313637.

Web documents and sites

Type Examples
Web document

Author/editor or compiler Year of the most recent version, Title, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.

Anderson, J (Minister for Transport and Regional Services) 2000, CASA approves avgas contamination test, media release, 23 January, Department of Transport and Regional Services, Canberra, viewed 7 February 2000, <http://www.dotrs.gov.au/media/anders/archive/2000/jan_00/al6_2000.htm>.

Australian Taxation Office 2012, Income tax: deductibility of self-education expenses incurred by an employee or a person in business, taxation ruling, TR 98/9, Australian Taxation Office, viewed 6 February 2013, <http://law.ato.gov.au/atolaw/view.htm?DocID=TXR/TR989/NAT/ATO/00001&PiT=99991231235958>.

AWB Limited 2006a, AWB and the single desk, AWB Limited, Melbourne, Victoria, viewed 1 June 2006, <http://www.awb.com.au/aboutawb/factsandindustryinformation/
singledeskbenefits/AWBandTheSingleDesk.htm>.

------2006b, Inquiry into the United Nations Oil-for-Food Program - statement from the Board of AWB Limited, AWB Limited, Melbourne, Victoria, viewed 1 June 2006, <http://www.awb.com.au/aboutawb/media/InquiryIntoTheUnitedNationsOilforFoodProgram.htm>.

Florek, S 2003, Megafauna extinction: patterns of extinction, fact sheet, Australian Museum, Sydney, viewed 14 June 2008, <http://www.austmus.gov.au/factsheets/megafauna.htm>.

Wright, S 2004, Open area test site (OATS) development, undergraduate project, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, viewed 27 March 2007, <http://eprints.usq.edu.au/archive/00000047>.

Web document (no author)

Title Year, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.

Educating America for the 21st century: developing a strategic plan for educational leadership by Columbia University 1993-2000 (initial workshop draft) 1994, draft workshop report, Institute for Learning Technologies, Columbia University, viewed 16 May 1995, <http://ariel.adgrp.com/~ghb/trips/940717_ICT/policy/ILT/EdPlan.html>.

Web document (no publication date)

Author n.d., Title, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location or just main site details>.

Sherman, C n.d., The invisible web, Free Pint Limited, United Kingdom, viewed 27 November 2000, <http://www.freepint.co.uk/issues/080600.htm#feature>.

Web site

Author (the person or organisation responsible for the site) Year (that the site was created or last revised), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year,<URL>.

The Body Shop Australia 2003, The Body Shop Australia, Mulgrave, Victoria, viewed 31 January 2003, <http://www.thebodyshop.com.au/>.

Online images

Author (the person or organisation responsible, if available) Year, Title of image (or a description), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.

If there is no named author, put the image title first followed by the date.

Title of image (or a description) Year, description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.

The lunar interior 1999, PlanetScapes, United States, viewed 31 January 2003, <http://www.planetscapes.com/solar/browse/moon/moonint.jpg>.

Australia 2007, country map, MapQuest, United Kingdom, viewed 11 March 2008, <http://www.mapquest.co.uk/mq/maps/mapAddress.do>.

Lane, M & Cook, J  1775, A general chart of the island of Newfoundland, digital image of cartographic material, Wikimedia Commons, viewed 11 March 2008, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cooks_Karte_von_Neufundland.jpg>.

AC Nielsen 2008, Consumer confidence, concerns, spending and attitudes to recession: a global Nielsen consumer report, digital image, AC Nielsen, viewed 21 August 2008, <http://au.acnielsen.com/site/documents/GlobalNielsenConsConfConcReportJune08b.pdf>.

Data sets

Harrell, F 2011, Data for Titanic passengers, data file, Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, Tennessee, viewed 17 November 2011, <http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/wiki/pub/Main/DataSets/titanic.txt>.

Bureau of Meteorology 2011, High- quality Australian daily rainfall dataset, Australia's high-quality climate change datasets, data file, Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology, viewed 17 November 2011, <ftp://ftp.bom.gov.au/anon/home/ncc/www/change/HQdailyR>.

Microforms, patents, standards and maps

Type Examples
Microform

Herbert, WG 1987, The Australian beef industry: an overview, Australian Livestock Council, Canberra, microfiche.

Patent

Connor, PM 2005, Collector for solar radiation, Australian Patent 2004243336.

Standard

International Organization for Standardization 2003, Traveller irrigation machines - part 1 - operational characteristics and laboratory and field test methods, ISO 8224-1:2003, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.

Online standard

Standards Australia 2003, Installation of security screen doors and window grilles, AS 5040-2003, Standards Australia, Sydney, viewed 16 September 2008, <http://www.saiglobal.com/online/autologin.asp>.

Map

Department of Mines and Energy 2007, Queensland gold resources, Australia 1:3 000 000 geological series, sheet 9986, Department of Mines and Energy, Brisbane, Queensland.

Online map

Logan Central QLD 2010, street map, Google maps, Australia, viewed 10 August 2010, <http://maps.google.com.au/maps?h1=en&tab=w1>.

See other examples in the Online Images part of the Web Documents and Sites section of this guide.

Digital Maps and Spatial Science Collection 

Department of Natural Resources and Water 2004, Declared catchments of dams 2004, Department of Natural Resources and Water, Queensland, viewed 18 September 2008, <http://coursereadings.usq.edu.au/services/spatial.php>. 

Audiovisual examples

The following details should be provided in a reference list - title, date of recording, format, publisher, place of recording. Any special credits and other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation.

Type Examples
DVD

Fahrenheit 9/11 2004, DVD, Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, Culver City, California.  Written, produced and directed by Michael Moore.

Video

Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992, video recording, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney.  Featuring the Sydney Symphony Orchestra.

Motion picture

Sunday too far away 1975, motion picture, South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide.  Distributed by Rainbow Products Ltd, Sydney, and starring Jack Thompson, Reg Lye and Max Cullen.

Television program

What are we going to do with the money?  1997, television program, ABC Television, Sydney, 8 August.

Radio program

The search for meaning 1998, radio program, ABC Radio, Sydney, 24 March.

CD-ROM

Australia through time 1994, CD-ROM, Random ROM in assoc. with the ABC, Sydney.

Legislation and legal authorities

  • Legislation is only included in a list of references if it is important to the understanding of the work (preferably in a separate list under the subheading 'Legislation').
  • The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly. Neither spelling or capitalisation should be altered to suit the referencing style. Articles (a, an or the) should not be omitted.
  • Even if viewed electronically, legislation is generally referenced as if in print (unless only available electronically).
  • Legal authorities (cases) are only included in a list of references if they are important to the understanding of the work under the subheading 'Legal authorities'.
  • Legislation viewed in an annotated legislation textbook is cited in Legislation format, not Book format, unless referring to the editorial commentary/analysis, rather than the legislative provision.
Type Examples
Acts

For Acts include  -  Name of Act Year (Jurisdiction)

Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth)

Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld)

Bills

For Bills include  -   Name of Bill Year (Legislative Body)    (no italics)

Anti-terrorism Bill 2004 (House of Representatives)

Legal authorities (cases) Include the name of the case and reference details.

Carey v. Price (2005) 132 ALR 255

The Commonwealth v. The State of Tasmania (1983) 158 CLR 1; (1983) 57 ALJR 450; (1983) 46 ALR 625 (the Tasmanian Dam Case)

McDonald's Corporation v. Joburgers Drive-Inn Restaurant (Pty) Ltd (1996) 36 IPR 11 at 20

Unpublished works 

Type Examples
Personal communications

Personal communications are not included in the list of references at the end.

Personal communications can include things such as letters, memos, emails, facsimiles, interviews, informal conversations, telephone calls and lecture presentations.

Full details of the date (day, month and year) should be provided in the text. Initials are included. 

(Ayers, RN 1991, pers. comm., 2 July).

MK Larsen (1983, pers. comm., 1 May) said...

On 20 July 2006, Ms A Brown confirmed ...

Theses, papers and abstracts 

Present the title of the document in roman type and in quotation marks.  The other details will vary according to the nature of the document.

Langdon, WB 1996, 'Data structures and genetic programming', PhD thesis, University College, London.

Bouchert-Bert, L 2002, 'When humans entered the northern forests: an archaeological and palaeoenvironmental perspective', MA dissertation, University of Calgary.

Pomfret, R 2001, 'Economic diversification of the new independent central Asian countries', paper to be presented at the International Conference on Economic Diversification of Small States, Brunei, 12-13 November.

Muhingo, E & Boniface, R 2003, 'Involving men to increase family planning acceptance', abstract presented at the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium Conference, Brussels, Belgium, 7-8 October.

Manuscripts If it is difficult to provide details about the location of a manuscript, be systematic.

Abramiuk, M 2002, 'A preliminary report on classic Maya ground stone tool exchange in and around the southern Maya mountains of Belize', in possession of the author.

Adams, DE 1917, 'My journey to Khartoum', in possession of MA Adams, Adelaide.

Joyce, TA 1931, 'Report of the British Museum expedition to British Honduras, 1931', in possession of the Central Archives of the British Museum.

Hudson, DE 1909-18, 'Diary', Hudson Papers, Fisher Library, University of Sydney.

Benton, TH 1847, 'Letter to Charles Fremont, 22 June', John Charles Fremont Papers, Southwest Museum Library, Los Angeles.

USQ course materials

Type Examples
Introductory and study books

Raine, S & Misra, R 2012, ENV2201 Land studies: study book, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba.

No authors listed - put the title in the author position.

ACC2115 Company accounting: introductory book 2011, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba.

Lecture notes and handouts

Stevens, J 2004, ECO2640 Applied econometrics: course notes, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba.

ACC5003 NIA advanced financial accounting: course notes 2004, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba.

Note: Treat like personal communication (i.e. not included in the list of references) if they are your own notes or unpublished.

Customized publications

Dessler, G & Tan, CH 2010, 'Human resource management: an Asian perspective', in K Southey (comp.), Staffing and remuneration: strategy and practice, Custom Book edn, Pearson, Frenchs Forest, New South Wales.

Note: If page numbers are required in text, use the custom publication page numbers, not the page numbers from the original publication.

Online course materials

Follow the requirements for Web documents previously outlined.

You can use either, the full location URL, or just the main site details (be consistent). When using just the main site URL, it may be necessary to include additional information, such as the course number, to facilitate retrieval of the item.

Ghabraie, K. 2011, In situ stresses, CIV2403, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, viewed 14 November 2011, <http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au>.

Hingst, R 2010, Self awareness activity, MGT1200, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, viewed 11 November 2011, <http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au>.

If the item has no obvious author, put the title in the author position.

ACC5202 Accounting: module 11 solutions S1 2011, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, viewed 11 November 2011, <http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au>.

Module 1: the accounting environment 2011, PowerPoint slides, ACC5202, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, viewed 11 November 2011, <http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au>.

Audio and video (including Breeze presentations).

Stilgoe, B 2011, Lecture 2 audio, podcast, CLI2201, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, accessed 14 November 2011, <http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au>.

Tao, X 2011, The Internet, podcast, CSC1402, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, viewed 14 November 2011, <http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au>.

Tension and compression in a truss 2011, podcast, CIV1501, viewed 14 November 2011, <http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au>.

Online course readings

Tuczay, C 2005, ' Trance, prophets and diviners in the Middle Ages', in E Pocs (ed.), Communicating with the spirits: Christian demonology and popular mythology, Central European University Press, Budapest, viewed 13 July 2006, <http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au>.

Adler, R 1993, 'Gender and language', in R Adler & N Towne (eds), Looking out/looking in, 7th edn, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, Fort Worth, viewed 17 September 2008, <http://usqdirect.usq.edu.au>.

Asef, MR 2008, 'Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters', Disasters, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 480-498, viewed 17 September 2008, <http://usqdirect.usq.edu.au>.

Lists, weblogs, wikis, podcasts and software

Type Examples
Personal email

In-text references to emails are dealt with in the same way as in-text references to other types of personal communication and in general, it is not necessary to provide further details. If there are occasions where readers will be keen to pursue the subject, the email address can be provided in the reference list.

Note: Email addresses should never be cited without the permission of the owner of the address.

Sender's name followed by year of posting, email, Day and Month of posting, <email address>.

Davis, A 2002, email, 24 April, <davis@unitc.edu.au>.

Lists, groups and bulletin boards

Author <Author's details - usually an email address> Year of posting, 'Subject/title of posting', description of posting, discussion list Owner, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.
 
Wilson, D <wilsond@rocketscience.com.au> 2003, 'Using the Web to your advantage', discussion group, National Computer Network, viewed 28 January 2003, <NETTRAIN@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu>.

Weblogs

Author (name or alias) Year of posting, Title of the site, format, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.
 
Norton, A 2008, Andrew Norton: observations from Carlton's lone classical Liberal, weblog, viewed 17 September 2008, <http://andrewnorton.info/>.

Weblog posts

Include title and date of the posting.

McGarry, A 2008, 'China's pain fires Olympic dream', Beijing blog, weblog post, 13 June, viewed 18 August 2008, <http://blogs.abc.net.au/olympics/>.

Video Weblog posts (e.g. YouTube)

aubummoney 2011, Top 7 engineering disasters in materials selection, online video, viewed 17 November 2011, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h8pQMuswWJ0>.

Crosson, S 2008, Accounting basics 1 - where did accounting come from?, online video, viewed 16 November 2011, <http://youtube.com/watch?v=mpNmcFzy6-4>.

Wikis

Title of Wiki Year (of article), 'Article title', format, Day Month (of article), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Quantitative Archaeology Wiki 2007, 'Contingency tables', wiki article, 26 March, viewed 17 September 2008, <http://wiki.iosa.it/dokuwiki/contingency_tables>.

Podcasts

Title of podcast Year, format, name and place of the sponsor of the source, Day Month (of podcast), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Pandi River expedition 2008, podcast, National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., 15 August, viewed 19 September 2008, <http://www.nationalgeographic.com/podcasts/shorts.html>.

For audio podcasts, use "accessed" rather than "viewed".

Jane Hutcheon reflects on life in London 2008, podcast, ABC Radio National, 15 June, accessed 18 September 2008, <http://www.abc.net.au/correspondents/content/2008/s2274772.htm>.

Streaming videos

Wound management: a nurses guide 2010, online video, VEA, Bendigo, viewed 16 November 2011, <http://vea.com.au/vLearn/Player/VEcGo2vy.aspx>.

Alcohol and the family: breaking the chain 1990, online video, Cambridge Educational, New York, viewed 16 November 2011, <http://digital.films.com.lidbauth.nait.ab.ca/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=2&xtid=9282828>.

Software (including tools and applications)

Provide references for specialized software (not standard software). Include the version number if applicable.

Software accessed online.

Moneyville 2008, computer software, Northern Bank, Belfast, accessed 24 November 2011, <http://moneyville.co.uk>.

SurveyGizmo 2011, SurveyGizmo, computer software, SurveyGizmo, Boulder, Colorado, accessed 25 November 2011, <http://www.surveygizmo.com/>.

Non-standard software downloaded to or installed on a device.

sales-genetics 2011, CultureGPS lite, version 1.13, computer software, sales-genetics, Duesseldorf, Germany.

Scott, C 2011, Treasure hunt - the interactive boardgame, version 1.1, computer software, Logic Rewired, Canberra. 

How to cite references within the text of an assignment

These are also called in-text references. When you use another's ideas you should immediately acknowledge your sources. Always give the surname of the author and the date of publication. Use the author-date method of citation for quotations and paraphrasing.

Quotes

Quotations or quotes are when you use the exact words of another author. Quotations must always be referenced with page numbers.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you summarise the ideas, concepts or words from the work or one or more authors.
Please note: changing only a few words from another author does not constitute paraphrasing.

Type Examples
If you are referring to the general theme of a work

Carlson (1981) obtained results which...

A recent study (Carlson 1990) ...        

When to include page numbers

Sometimes it is necessary to provide page numbers, for example when paraphrasing or referring to information or an idea that can be located on a particular page, quoting or referring to images, figures or data.

Soil layers below the well tip contribute relatively little water (Kozeny 1988, pp. 223-4).

Kozeny (1988, p. 223) found soil layers below the well tip contributed little. Referring to multi-volume works.

(Jesse 1992, vol. 2, p. 23)

(James 1999, vol. 1, p. 26; vol. 3, pp. 39-41)         

Direct quotations

Brief quotations (about 30 words or less) can be included in text. Use single quotation marks.

Stewart (1982, p. 6) said: 'Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet'. 'Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet' (Stewart 1982, p. 6).

Lengthy quotations are given in separate paragraphs which are usually indented from the text margin and set in smaller type. No quotation marks are used. Citations are as above.        

When there are no page numbers or when referring to sections, equations or other elements 

For sources that don't include page numbers, such as many electronic books and web resources, try to be as precise as possible where it is practical to do so.

Tipton and Krause (2007, ch. 2, para. 1) state: 'Increased corporate ...'.

(Beutler 2000, Preface, para. 1)

(Xerox Corporation 1999, para. 5)

This level of detail may not be possible, or suitable, for all formats (e.g. audio, video, images, maps, etc. or even very short documents).

(Fahrenheit 9/11 2004) 

Referring to sections, equations or other elements from a source.

(Module 1: the accounting environment 2011, slide 1)

(Spiegel 2000, sec. 2)

(Warren 2006, eq. 3)

(Ellis 1984, fig. 6)

For most plurals, simply add an "s" and drop the full stop (e.g. chs, paras, figs and eqs).

Exceptions include fnn. (footnotes), ll. (lines), pp. (pages), rr. (regulations) and ss. (sections).        

Citations from secondary sources 

Brown (cited in Smith 1995, p. 99) reported ...

(Brown, cited in Smith 1995, p. 99)

Note: In the reference list provide the details of the author who has done the citing:

Smith, J 1995, ...

Details of the work of the author being cited - in this example, Brown - can be included if useful or of interest (but is not necessary).        

Using images, figures and tables

Figure captions should be directly under the image and then followed by an in-text citation.

Figure 1: Consumer confidence, concerns, spending and attitudes to recession: a global Nielsen consumer report (AC Nielsen 2008, p. 1)

Table captions should be above the table.  There must also be an in-text citation if reproducing or adapting data.        

Two or three authors

(Jones & Hackett 1991)

Jones and Hackett (1991) theorized that...

(Boyd, Smith & Eberle 1985)

Boyd, Smith and Eberle (1985) found...

Note: The ampersand is used when the authors' names are in brackets.        

More than three authors

Use the first author only followed by 'et al.'

For example, a work by Veitch, Christodoulis and Farmer becomes:

Veitch et al. (2012) discussed how to identify valid law.

A range of general themes (Veitch et al. 2012) were discussed.

Note: Names of all the authors must be given in the list of references.        

Multiple citations of the same author

Arrange in chronological order, and use suffixes to distinguish works published in the same year (the order of the letters is determined based on the alphabetical order of the titles).

Brown (1980, 1983a, 1983b) theorized ...

Brown (1983a, p. 21; 1983b, p. 85) theorized ...        

Two authors, same surname

Initials are included to distinguish between them.

The theory was propounded by AE Smith (1981), but has been refuted since (Smith, BR 1985).        

More than one work cited

Alphabetical presentation is recommended.

(Haddon 1969; Larsen 1971, pp. 99-101)        

Personal communications 

Personal communications can include things such as letters, memos, emails, facsimiles, interviews, informal conversations, telephone calls and lecture presentations.

Initials are included. 

Full details of the date (day, month and year) should be provided in the text.

(Ayers, RN 1991, pers. comm., 2 July).

MK Larsen (1983, pers. comm., 1 May) said...

On 20 July 2006, Ms A Brown confirmed ...

Note: Personal communications are not included in the list of references at the end.        

Encyclopedias and dictionaries (if no author is evident)

The concise Oxford dictionary of current English (1990, p. 334) defines it as ...

(The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language 1995, p. 334)

Note: There is then no need for an entry in the reference list.        

Editors

If the role of an editor (or compiler, reviser or translator) is of primary importance, and the work is listed in the list of references under those names, use abbreviations such as ed., eds, trans., rev., comp. and comps.

(ed. Kaufmann 1974)

... edited by Kaufmann (1974)

(eds Ahdar & Aroney 2010)

... edited by Ahdar and Aroney (2010)        

Unknown or uncertain dates

No publication date - Donovan (n.d.) revealed ...

Approximate publication date - Harris (c. 1751, p. 117) said ...

Doubtful publication date - Hawkins (1886?)

Unpublished work - (Crowley, unpub.) Crowley (unpub.) argues that...

Not yet in the process of being published - Tomasi (forthcoming)

Currently in the process of being published - Nisbet (in press)        

Anonymous or no author given

Note: Do not use 'Anonymous' or 'Anon'.

On travelling to London (1683) reveals this to be false.

This was not so in seventeenth-century England (On travelling to London 1683)

... as reported in ATSIC News (2002) This is a common misconception (ATSIC News 2002)

... in the Sydney Morning Herald (22 November 2012, p. 3)        

No personal author, sponsored by corporate body

(CSIRO 1982)

A publication of the Institution of Engineers, Australia (1988) is ...

Note: Abbreviations such as CSIRO may be used in textual references. The abbreviation should then be used for all in-text citations of that body and the reference list should provide a cross-reference:

CSIRO - see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation        

Newspapers

If authors are given, use the principles already stated above and provide an entry in the reference list. 

If there is no author, provide all the details in the in-text citation. 

(Weekend Australian 24-25 Jan. 1987, p. 19)

... in the Sydney Morning Herald (24 January 2000, p. 12).

(Financial Review 18 January 2000, editorial) There is then no need for an entry in the reference list. If a work contains frequent references to newspaper material, it may be best to abbreviate the newspaper titles. SMH, for example, could replace Sydney Morning Herald. The abbreviation, like the full title, is italicised.

Note: Newspaper articles on the WWW and in electronic databases do require entries in the reference list.        

Sacred texts

Psalm 23:6-8

Details of sacred texts are not usually included in a list of references.        

Motion pictures, videos, DVDs, CD-ROMs, television and radio programs

In-text references should contain the title (in italics) and date of production.

Strictly ballroom (1992)

(Understanding the GNP 1982)        

Legislation

The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly. Neither spelling or capitalisation should be altered to suit the referencing style. Articles (a, an or the) should not be omitted.

Most Acts and Ordinances have a short, formal title that can be used for citation purposes. First references should always cite this short, formal title in italics (exactly and in full) and subsequent references can be shown in roman script (not italics) with the date omitted.

... the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974 ...

... the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act ...

There are two ways of clarifying jurisdiction.  For works referred to infrequently, make it obvious in the text.

Victoria's Equal Opportunity Act 1995 prohibits ...

Otherwise, place information in parentheses and in roman script after the date.

... the Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth) ...

... the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) ...

Acts of the parliaments of other nations should be presented in roman script.

... The Sale of Foods Act 2000 (UK) ...

Bills are presented in roman type because they are, in effect, 'unpublished' at that stage.

... the Regulation of Genetic Material Bill 2000 ...

Legislation is only included in a list of references if it is important to the understanding of the work (preferably in a separate list under the subheading 'Legislation').        

Legal authorities The following details are necessary for the full in-text citation of legal authorities:    
  • the name of the case (italicised and containing the first-mentioned party on each side). It is sufficient to provide the family name of a person. Corporation names are given in full (but abbreviations can be used)
  • reference details 
    • the year (in parentheses) or volume number, or both
    • abbreviated name of the report series
    • the page on which the report of the case begins (for a specific page reference, "at" is used instead of "p."

     McDonald's Corporation v. Joburgers Drive-Inn Restaurant (Pty) Ltd (1996) 36 IPR 11 at 20

    Carey v. Price (2005) 132 ALR 255

    In the citation of criminal cases in which the Crown is the prosecutor, "R" is used.

    R v. Australian Broadcasting Tribunal (1980) 144 CLR 13

    However, if the Crown is the respondent in a criminal appeal, the order is reversed and The Queen given in full. Pearce v. The Queen (1998) 194 CLR 610

    On first mention, the authority should always be cited in full. If there is a commonly known abbreviated form or name for the case, this can be given in parentheses and used in subsequent citations.

    Mabo v. The State of Queensland (1992) 175 CLR 1 (the Aboriginal Land Rights Case)

    A decision at law can appear in more than one report series.

    The Commonwealth v. The State of Tasmania (1983) 158 CLR 1; (1983) 57 ALJR 450; (1983) 46 ALR 625 (the Tasmanian Dam Case

    Legal authorities are only included in a list of references if they are imprtant to the understanding of the work under the subheading 'Legal authorities'.        

    Web site

    To cite a Web site within the text of an assignment, use the name of the person or organisation responsible for the site (author) and the date of the site's creation or most recent update.

    The Bodyshop (2003)

    Web addresses can be given directly in the text using angle brackets(< >) to isolate them from any sentence punctuation.

    Details are available from the department's Web site <http://www.finance.gov.au>.        

    Web document (author known)

    To cite a document from a Web site within the text of an assignment, editor or compiler and the date on which the document was created or last revised.

    Klintworth (2000)

    International Narcotics Control Board (1999)
     
    As with Web sites, the full address of a document within a Web site can be provided in the text. It is sufficient, however, to provide only the address of the Web site.

    Details are available from the Attorney-General's Department <http://www.law.gov.au/aghome/legal/pol/cld/aia/part_1.htm>.        

    Web document (no author)

    To cite a document from a Web site within the text of an assignment, where the author is unknown, give the title of the document followed by the date of creation or most recent revision.

    Educating America for the 21st century: developing a strategic plan for educational leadership by Columbia University 1993-2000(initial workshop draft) (1994).        

    Online images

    In text, cite author, year and page number (if available) - for example, AC Nielsen (2008) or (Adams 2006, p. 45). If there is no named author, use the image title or description (in italics) followed by the date.

    Figure captions should be directly under the image and then followed by an in-text citation.

    Figure 1: Consumer confidence, concerns, spending and attitudes to recession: a global Nielsen consumer report (AC Nielsen 2008)

    Figure 2: The lunar interior (1999)

    Table captions should be above the table. There must also be an in-text citation if reproducing or adapting data.        

     Creative Commons

    For items with a Creative Commons Licence, see the USQ Creative Commons Website for more information.

    Information about the Creative Commons Licence is entered directly after the item is used, within your assignment.

    ... (Zawacki-Richter, Hanft & Backer 2011, p. 2). Used under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

    There is no need to include Creative Commons licensing information in your list of references at the end of your assignment. Reference the item as you would normally, according to its format. Information about Creative Commons Licences is to be included with your in-text citations only.

    Additional help

    Helpful hints for Web documents

    • You must specify the date on which you accessed the item, since Web documents can change or disappear at any time.
    • If a Web document includes both a date of creation and a date it was last updated, use only the date it was last updated.
    • If you find a document on the Web which is a series of linked pages, use the information from the main or "home" page.
    • If you have trouble identifying the title, look at the top of the Web page above FILE on your browser.
    • The date a Web document was created is usually listed right at the bottom of the document.

    More information and additional guides

    Some other guides are available at:

    Please note: Whilst these referencing guides are offered to assist you to learn how to reference, University policy mandates the use of the Harvard Style (AGPS) defined by this referencing guide. It is possible that you may access some online products that have the functionality to render citations in various styles. Please exercise care and ensure that your referencing complies with this USQ Library guide.

    Need additional help applying these guides? 

    Contact the Library or refer to the Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, Wiley Australia. Call number 808.02 Sty. Copies held in the Main Collection and Reference (also held at Fraser Coast and Springfield campus).

    Please note: The Library is not responsible for checking lists of references. We can, however, refer you to our referencing guides and the published manuals listed to help you ensure the accuracy of your referencing.

    Assignment help

    Help with assignment writing and referencing is also available from The Learning Centre.