Referencing Terminology

By understanding the terminology associated with referencing, you will find it much easier to apply the referencing standards.


Referencing (also called citing or attributing) Acknowledging someone else's ideas, words and/or work; includes both in-text and end-text referencing.
Reference (also called citation or attribution) The details about the source of the ideas; words and/or work; includes both in-text and end-text referencing.
Referencing Styles & Methods The format, style or way the reference details have to be recorded, in both in-text and end-text references.
Referencing Guides Documents that outline, usually with examples, how to reference using a particular style, eg the Library's Referencing Guides.
In-Text Referencing Referencing detail that is included in the text of your document or work. Types of in-text references include direct quotes and indirect quotes.
Quote Using someone else's words.
Direct quote Using someone else's exact words.
Indirect quote Paraphrasing or summarising someone else's words.

Adapting, converting and/or changing someone else's ideas, words or work into your words or work.

Summarising Similar to paraphrasing, except a summary is a brief account of someone else's ideas or words; only the main points are covered with the details being left out.
Copy Using someone else's table, diagram, figures, illustrations, flowcharts, structures etc.
End-Text Referencing A reference list or bibliography.
Reference List Placed at the end of your work, a complete list of all the resources you referred to or cited in your work.
Bibliography Placed at the end of your work, a complete list of all the resources you referred to in your work, as well as other resources you may have used to prepare your work but did not cite in your work.

The use of the published or unpublished work of another person without full and clear acknowledgement.