The Australian Native Woodland Reserve (ANWaR) also plays a significant conservation role for the region. In recent years, the Darling Downs region has been
Once widespread Stemmacantha australis now only occurs in isolated roadside remnants in the Darling Downs.
under considerable pressure from vegetation clearing at rates never previously seen.
The vegetation types represented within the Reserve (Red Gum-Ironbark open woodland, dry Stringybark woodland, and Darling Downs Mountain Coolibah open woodland) are some of the most at risk ecosystems in the region. These ecosystems are also generally poorly represented in present formal reserves in Queensland.
In addition, there are a number of rare or endangered plant species occurring within the Reserve.
Stemmacantha australis is currently listed as a vulnerable plant species that is considered at risk of disappearing from the wild within 20-50 years. The distribution of S. australis once included Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland; however, it is now presumed extinct outside Queensland.
Eucalyptus argophloia (Chinchilla white gum) is also listed as vulnerable nationally. This species is restricted to a small area of about 16 x 24 km north of Chinchilla.
Callitris baileyi (Bailey's cypress pine) is currently listed as rare, meaning that it now occurs in only a few isolated populations in the Darling Downs region and northern New South Wales.