Year	No.	Offer	Mode	Description			Cred. Pts
98	67554 	S2  	X 	IND NURSING PRACTITIONER  	1.00



Examiner: D. HEGNEY


Within the changing context of health care provision, the expectations of the Registered Nurse include having autonomy within the work setting and making decisions consistent with their scope of practice, and having the freedom to act upon those decisions, so that they can cope with the many complex and differing demands that are placed upon them in practice, either in a health team or alone. This is an emerging trend in the career pathway of the advanced practising Registered Nurse, particularly in the role of Primary Health Care, private practice and rural/remote nursing. This unit will provide them with the strategies required for successful practice as an independent nurse practitioner.


This unit will consider the theory, process and business aspects of independent nursing practice. It explores a study of entrepreneurial and intra-preneurial consultative and autonomous roles in nursing. Students will examine issues that affect nurse practitioners' practice such as: education, legislation/certification, reimbursement, impact on patient care, nurse practitioner function and attitudes both positive and negative from clientele and other health professionals. This will be achieved by formulating reference groups with other Registered Nurses, allied health professionals, and where possible, health care consumers and conducting a critical analysis of results of discussions. Finally, the student will critically analyse their own practice, and develop a model for independent practice that will depend on the context in which the student functions.


On successful completion of this unit students will be able

  1. Recall the history of independent nursing practice.
  2. Identify the current trends of the role and functions of the
    Nurse Practitioners in remote areas, general practice and
    district health service.
  3. Explore the entre- and intra-preneurial consultative/
    collaborative and autonomous roles of the independent nurse
  4. Identify the major legal, financial, educational and socio-
    political issues of independent nursing practice.
  5. Critically analyse perspectives of the independent nurse
    practitioner's role by contributing effectively to debate
    within nursing, allied health professionals and health
  6. Evaluate the potential for developing the role of the
    independent nurse practitioner in Australia.
  7. Develop strategies that will promote a collaborative role to
    ensure positive health care outcomes for clients.
  8. Develop either a marketing plan for an independent nursing
    practice or a proposal to establish a nursing practice in
    their State/Territory, that will depend on the context within
    which the student functions.


 Description                                                    Weighting(%)
  1. Module 1 - The Independent Nurse Practitioner history, 10.00 trends, roles and functions. history, trends (Australian and Overseas) models of independent nurse/advanced practitioners roles and functions autonomous and collaborative relationships.

  2. Module 2 - Issues education, legislation/certification, 20.00 reimbursement, impact on patient care, nurse practitioner function attitudes [positive and negative] from clientele, allied health professionals and health consumers formulation of a reference group; critical analysis of results of reference groups; strategies to promote an autonomous and collaborative role to ensure positive outcomes for client care.

  3. Module 3 - Business Aspects setting up a business in 20.00 independent practice marketing, advertising, financial aspects laying the foundations of a sournd business essential legal information common pitfalls expeienced by other nurses in private practice relevance of insurance in business.

  4. Module 4 - Market Plan for Independent Nursing Practice - 50.00 develoment of a market plan dependent upon context of practice OR

  5. Module 5 - A Proposal for Independent Nursing Practice - 50.00 development of a proposal for independent nursing practice in student's State/Territory, dependent upon context of practice.


Hamric, A., Spross, J.A. and Hanson, C.M. 1996, Advanced Nursing
Practice: An Integrative Approach
, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.


Ausumed Conference proceedings; `Nurses in Business', Brisbane, 18th
May, 1995.

American Nurses' Foundation, 1988, Nurses in Private Practice,
American Nurses' Foundation, Missouri.

American Nurses' Association, 1989, A Reference manual for Business
Design: The Nurse, Entrepreneur
, American Nurses' Association

Carpenito L.J. & Neal M.C. 1994, `Nurse entrepreneurs: Who are they,
what do they do and what challenges do they face?' in: McCloskey, J. &
Grace, H. (eds), Current Issues in Nursing, 4th edn., Mosby, St

Dunn, C. 1993, Let's plan a business, 2nd edn., Business Educators
Australasia Publications.

English, J. 1986, How to organise and operate a small business in
, 3rd edn., Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Kelly, J. 1995, `The legal context of the nurse as an independent
practitioner', in Gray & Pratt (eds), Issues in Australian Nursing
, Churchill Livingstone, Melbourne.

NSW Health Department, 1993, Nurse Practitioner Review Stage 2, Vol.
1. and 11
, State Health Publication No. [NB] 93-120. NSW Health
Department, Gibson Marlow Consulting [Aust] Pty Ltd.

Reynolds, W., Savage. W & Williamson, A. 1993, Your own business: a
practical guide to success
, Thomas Nelson Australia, Melbourne.

Sampson, D. 1994, Preparing a Business Plan, AGPS, Canberra.

Streff, M.B. 1994, `Third Party reimbursement issues for advanced
practice nurses in the 90's in: McCloskey, J. & Grace, H. (eds.),
Current Issues in Nursing, 4th edn., Mosby, St Louis.

WA Health Department, 1994, Practice Nurse Project: Derby Regional
Hospital 1993-1994
, Albany Regional Hospital, W.A.


Calmetat, A. 1993, `Tips for starting your own nurse practitioner
practice', Nurse Practitioner, Vol. 18, No. 4, April, pp 58, 61, 64.

Hammond, M. & Gourlay, B. 1993, `For sale! Nursing Services',
Canadian Nurse, Vol 89, No. 7, August, pp 15-16.

Keyzer, D.M. 1995, `Health policy and rural nurses: a time for
reflection', Collegian, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, pp 28-35.

Levin, T.E. 1993, `The solo nurse practitioner: a private practice
model', Nurse Practitioner, Vol. 4, No. 3, September, pp 158-164.

News, 1995, `Practice Nurses a hit in the north-west', Australian
Nursing Journal
, Vol. 2, No. 12, June, p 14.

O'Brien, B. & Spry, J. 1995, `Expanding the role of the clinical nurse
consultant', Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 12, No. 4,
June-August, pp 26-322.

Morgan, P. & Cohen, L. 1992, `Should nurse practitioners play a larger
role in Canada's health care system', Canadian Medical Association
, Vol. 146, No. 6, pp 1020-5.

Strasen, L. 1996, `Promoting intrapreneurship in the acute care
setting', Journal of Nursing Administrtion, Vol. 16, pp 9-12.

Willis, E. 1993, `Nurses and independent fee-for-service practice: a
critical view', Collegian, Vol. 2, No. 3, December, pp 135-142.


Directed Study                                	100
Assessments                                   	40
Other                                         	10


No  *F/S Marks     Due        Description                              Wtg(%)    LBL WWW
1   S              05/10/98  ESSAY (2000 WORDS)                        40.00     Y   N
2   S              09/11/98  REPORT (3000 WORDS)                       60.00     Y   N

*F=Formative, S=Summative


1    Report  on Proposal to establish an independent nursing  practice
     (dependent upon context within student functions).
2    In accordance with University Policy and Guidelines,
2.1  an  Examiner  may  grant  an extension of  the  due  date  of  an
     assignment in extenuating circumstances;
2.2  no  assignments  will be accepted for assessment  purposes  after
     assignments  or  model  solutions have been  released  except  in
     extenuating circumstances;
2.3  assignments  submitted after the due date without any extenuating
     circumstances  will  attract a penalty of  at  most  20%  of  the
     assigned mark for each working day late;
2.4  students who submit an assignment after the due date and wish  to
     claim   extenuating   circumstances,  must  provide   documentary
     evidence with the assignment explaining the circumstances;
2.5  the   unit  examiner  shall  consider  a  claim  for  extenuating
     circumstances and decide on the outcome;
2.6  the  decision of the Dean shall be final in any dispute that  may
     arise in the implementation of these guidelines.

This information is accurate as at 04/11/98