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WIN2215 Wine Biochemistry and Microbiology

Semester 2, 2016 External
Units : 1
Faculty or Section : Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences
School or Department : School of Agric, Comp and Environ Sciences
Student contribution band : Band 2
ASCED code : 019905 - Food Science and Biotechnology

Contents on this page


Examiner: Ursula Kennedy


Pre-requisite: WIN1101 and (BIO1101 or BIO1100)


Biochemical and microbiological considerations are important in grape and wine production This course provides an introduction to the major classes of biochemical compounds, their structures and chemistry, major metabolic processes relevant to grape growing and winemaking and biochemical reactions and additives during wine production and storage. This course also provides an understanding of the involvement and significance of micro-organisms in viticulture and winemaking, and aims to impart an appreciation of the roles of micro-organisms in the environment, and potential positive and negative impacts of micro-organisms on grapevine health and wine production processes.


The chemical and physical nature of structures and functions within living cells is studied. This course allows students to develop an understanding of the major classes of biochemical compounds and the metabolism of these compounds. It discusses the structures and chemistry of biomolecules, bioenergetics of metabolic reactions and central metabolic processes including metabolism of carbohydrates, respiration and photosynthesis. This is extended to consider the biochemistry of important enzyme-catalysed reactions during production and storage of wine. Impacts of enzymes derived from the grapes, the microbes used to ferment wine, and used as winemaking additives are discussed. The course also considers biochemical and spectroscopic analysis of wine. In addition the course considers the positive and negative impacts that micro-organisms can have on quality of grapes and wine. This course includes discussion of the diversity of micro-organisms, microbial cell structure and function, metabolism, nutrition, growth and control of micro-organisms, an introduction to bacteria, viruses, fungi and protists and factors affecting their interactions with grapevines, an introduction to the types and roles of micro-organisms found in wines, roles of yeasts and bacteria in wine making and spoilage reactions, and control of micro-organisms in wine making.


On completion of this course students will be able to:

  1. describe the major classes of biochemical compounds, including carbohydrates, lipids and proteins;
  2. describe the action of enzymes and their applications metabolism;
  3. explain the core metabolic processes which occur in most organisms (including grape vines and winemaking micro-organisms);
  4. evaluate the integration of metabolic pathways in an organism;
  5. describe the roles of enzymes in winemaking, the sources of these enzymes, their activities and impacts on wine production and quality;
  6. describe and identify biochemical components that impact on wine production and quality;
  7. summarise the taxonomy and morphological features of micro-organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa;
  8. describe the general characteristics, classification, replication of bacteria, fungi and viruses and their relevance to the wine industry;
  9. describe the range of micro-organisms associated with wine and the roles of the micro-organisms in grape and wine production, including potential positive and negative impacts;
  10. discuss the traditional and novel winemaking yeasts and bacteria, their requirements and their benefits;
  11. outline the types of microbial spoilage reactions, their identifying sensory characteristics;
  12. discuss microbial control options and their potential impacts on the wine produced.


Description Weighting(%)
1. Biological Macromolecules: structure function, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, enzymes. 8.00
2. Bioenergetics, metabolic regulation, central metabolism of carbohydrate: glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, carbohydrate storage (synthesis and degradation of glycogen and starch) 10.00
3. Respiratory metabolism (citric acid cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation), photosynthesis. 10.00
4. Biochemistry of metabolism of winemaking yeast and bacteria that leads to production and modification of wine sensory components. 8.00
5. Biochemistry of added winemaking enzymes and microbial enzymes and biochemical analyses of grapes and wine 8.00
6. Diversity of micro-organisms and overview of cell structure and function 8.00
7. Introduction to bacteria, viruses, fungi and yeasts 8.00
8. Nutrition, growth and control of micro-organisms and general concepts of microbial ecosystems 8.00
9. Micro-organisms in the vineyard and winery 8.00
10. Wine fermentations as a microbial ecosystems 8.00
11. Microbial wine spoilage and management of spoilage micro-organisms 8.00
12. Microbial control approaches and their impact on wine quality 8.00

Text and materials required to be purchased or accessed

ALL textbooks and materials available to be purchased can be sourced from USQ's Online Bookshop (unless otherwise stated). (

Please contact us for alternative purchase options from USQ Bookshop. (

  • Black, JG 2015, Microbiology: principles and explorations, 9th edn, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken.
  • Nelson, DL & Cox 2013, Lehninger principles of biochemistry, 6th edn, WH Freeman, New York.

Reference materials

Reference materials are materials that, if accessed by students, may improve their knowledge and understanding of the material in the course and enrich their learning experience.
  • Barnett, JA, Payne RW & Yarrow, D 2000, Yeasts: characteristics and identification, 3rd edn, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Berg, JM, Tymoczko, JL & Stryer, L 2015, Biochemistry, 8th edn, WH Freeman, New York.
  • Bergey, D 1993, Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 9th edn, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
  • Bonnett, R 2002, Wine microbiology and biotechnology, Taylor & Francis Inc, London.
  • Boulton, RB, Singleton, VL, Bisson, LF & Kunkee, RW 1999, Principles and practices of winemaking, Aspen Publishing, Gaithersburg.
  • Delfini, C & Formica, JW 2001, Wine microbiology: science and technology, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York.
  • Ebeler, SE, Takeoka, GR & Winterhalter, P 2007, Authentication of Food and Wine, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Farkas, B 1988, Technology and Biochemistry of Wine, CRC Press.
  • Fleet, GH 1993, Wine microbiology and biotechnology, Hardwood Academic Publishers, Switzerland.
  • Fugelsang, KC 2007, Wine Microbiology, 2nd edn, Springer, New York.
  • Jackson, RS 2014, Wine science: principles and applications, 4th edn, Elsevier/Academic Press, Boston.
  • Kurtzman 2011, The yeasts: a taxonomic study, 5th edn, Elsevier Science Publishers, New York.
  • Margalit, Y 2012, Concepts in Wine Chemistry, 3rd edn, Wine Appreciation Guild.
  • Marriott, NG 2006, Principles of food sanitation, 5th edn, Springer, New York.
  • Martinko, JM, Madigan, MT & Parker, J 2012, Brock biology of microorganisms, 13 global edn, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River.
  • Rankine, BC 2004, Making good wine: A manual of winemaking practice for Australia and New Zealand, MacMillan, Sydney.
  • Ribereau-Gayon, R, Dubourdieu, D, Doneche B & Lonvaud, A 2008, The handbook of enology, Volume 1: The microbiology of wine and vinification, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken.
  • Voet, D, Voet, JG & Pratt, CW 2015, Fundamentals of biochemistry, 5th edn, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  • Zoecklein, BW, Fugelsang, KC, Gump, BH & Nury, FS 1999, Wine analysis and production, Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York.

Student workload expectations

Activity Hours
Directed Study 80.00
Examinations 2.00
Private Study 83.00

Assessment details

Description Marks out of Wtg (%) Due Date Notes
Assignment 20 20 12 Jul 2016
Assignment 2 20 20 12 Jul 2016
2 Hour Closed Exam 60 60 End S2 (see note 1)

  1. The date of the exam will be during the examination period and will become available during the semester. Please check the exam timetable once published.

Important assessment information

  1. Attendance requirements:
    It is the students' responsibility to study all material provided to them or required to be accessed by them to maximise their chance of meeting the objectives of the course and to be informed of course-related activities and administration.

  2. Requirements for students to complete each assessment item satisfactorily:
    To complete each of the assessment items satisfactorily, students must obtain at least 50% of the marks available for each assessment item. (Depending upon the requirements in Statement 4 below, students may not have to satisfactorily complete each assessment item to receive a passing grade in this course).

  3. Penalties for late submission of required work:
    Students should refer to the Assessment Procedure (point 4.2.4)

  4. Requirements for student to be awarded a passing grade in the course:
    To be assured of receiving a passing grade a student must achieve at least 50% of the total weighted marks available for the course.

  5. Method used to combine assessment results to attain final grade:
    The final grades for students will be assigned on the basis of the aggregate of the weighted marks obtained for each of the summative assessment items in the course.

  6. Examination information:
    In a Closed Examination, candidates are allowed to bring only writing and drawing instruments into the examination.

  7. Examination period when Deferred/Supplementary examinations will be held:
    Any Deferred or Supplementary examinations for this course will be held during the next examination period.

  8. University Student Policies:
    Students should read the USQ policies: Definitions, Assessment and Student Academic Misconduct to avoid actions which might contravene University policies and practices. These policies can be found at

Assessment notes

  1. The due date for an assignment is the date by which a student must despatch the assignment to the USQ. The onus is on the student to provide proof of the despatch date, if requested by the Examiner. Students must retain a copy of each item submitted for assessment. If requested by the Examiner, students will be required to provide a copy of the assignments submitted for assessment purposes. Such copies should be despatched to USQ within 24 hours of receipt of a request being received. The examiner of a course may grant an extension of the due date of an assignment in extenuating circumstances.

  2. Harvard (AGPS) is the referencing system required in this course. Students should use Harvard (AGPS) style in their assignments to format details of the information sources they have cited in their work. The Harvard (AGPS) style to be used is defined by the USQ Library's referencing guide. //