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WIN2220 Wine Production

Semester 2, 2019 Online
Short Description: Wine Production
Units : 1
Faculty or Section : Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences
School or Department : School of Agric, Comp and Environ Sciences
Student contribution band : Band 2
ASCED code : 019905 - Food Science and Biotechnology
Grading basis : Graded


Examiner: Ursula Kennedy


Pre-requisite: WIN1101


This course considers the principal chemical components of wine and analysis of these components. The chemistry of sensory components and potential spoilage reactions is discussed. Following on from foundation studies in Grape and Wine Production, it further explores the procedures and issues in production of white and red table wines. It then extends this knowledge further to develop students' understanding of production of fortified and sparkling wines.


This course is aimed at providing an awareness of how chemistry can be used to interpret, unify and predict outcomes of winemaking actions, and extends previous studies to consider the production of dry white and red table wines. The course considers acidity, buffering, chemical equilibria and measurement and control in wine making, chemical analyses of juice and wine, sulphur dioxide in winemaking, oxidation and its management in grapes, juice and wine, chemistry of wine phenolic compounds and sensory components, and wine chemical stability issues. It then considers assessment of grape berry quality as related to winemaking, and follows the key stages in the making of dry table wines. These stages include processing of grapes, must and juice, primary yeast fermentation, secondary fermentations, similar and different processes in white and red wine production and management of wines during post-fermentation processes. This is followed by consideration of bottling, types of wine packaging and their potential impacts on wine characteristics. Production of fortified wines is considered, including production of fortifying spirit by distillation and processes used in production of the various styles of fortified wines. The course finishes with consideration of principles of production of sparkling wines, including secondary fermentation and post-fermentation processes and practices.


On completion of this course students will be able to:

  1. describe the composition of important components of grapes and wine;
  2. discuss the contributions of key components of wine and how these can be manipulated to achieve a desired wine style;
  3. discuss the nature and management of wine oxidation, instability and spoilage;
  4. describe and identify wine chemical components that impact on sensory attributes.
  5. discuss the processing and preparation of must and juice and outline the processes and management of primary and malolactic fermentation;
  6. summarise the key issues in post-fermentation management of white and red wines;
  7. describe the processes of filtration and bottling and discuss the types of wine packaging and closures;
  8. describe the principles of distillation and handling of spirit and the sensory effects of fortifying spirit on fortified wines;
  9. outline the production of the various fortified wine styles and critically appraise the different methods of production;
  10. compare and contrast the production methods and features of the different classes of sparkling wine;


Description Weighting(%)
1. Introduction to wine chemistry, chemical analysis and measurement and control in winemaking 8.00
2. pH and acid profiles in juice and wine 8.00
3. Uses and measurement of sulphur dioxide in winemaking, interactions of sulphur dioxide and other wine components 8.00
4. Oxidation and its management in grapes, juice and wine 8.00
5. Chemistry and reactivity of phenolic compounds in juice and wine, polymerisation, ageing and oxidation of wine pigment compounds 8.00
6. Chemistry of sensory components of wine 8.00
7. Wine stability: protein stability, bitartrate stability, acidification and haze management 8.00
8. Processing and preparation of must and juice 6.00
9. Primary and malolactic fermentation for table wines 6.00
10. Management of white and red wines after primary fermentation 8.00
11. Filtration, bottling and packaging options and bottle closures and their impacts on wine characteristics 8.00
12. Principles of distillation, sensory effects of fortifying spirit on fortified wines and production of the various fortified wine styles 8.00
13. Classification and production of the various sparkling wine styles, secondary fermentation principles and stylistic considerations 8.00

Text and materials required to be purchased or accessed

ALL textbooks and materials available to be purchased can be sourced from USQ's Online Bookshop (unless otherwise stated). (

Please contact us for alternative purchase options from USQ Bookshop. (

Iland, P, Bruer, N, Ewart, A, Markides, A, Sitters, J 2012, Monitoring the winemaking process from grapes to wine: techniques and concepts, 2nd edn, Patrick Iland Wine Promotions Pty Ltd, Adelaide.

Reference materials

Reference materials are materials that, if accessed by students, may improve their knowledge and understanding of the material in the course and enrich their learning experience.
Boulton, RB, Singleton, VL, Bisson, LF & Kunkee, RW 1999, Principles and practices of winemaking, Aspen Publishing, Gaithersburg.
Clarke, RJ & Bakker, J 2011, Wine: flavour chemistry, 2nd edn, Wiley-Blackwell.
Halliday, J and Johnson, H 2006, The art and science of wine, Winetitles, Adelaide.
Hornsey, IS 2007, Chemistry and biology of winemaking, Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing, Cambridge.
Iland, P, Bruer, N, Edwards, G, Weeks, S, Wilkes, E 2013, Chemical analysis of grapes and wine: techniques and concepts, 2nd edn, Patrick Iland Wine Promotions Pty Ltd, Adelaide.
Margalit, Y 2012, Concepts in wine chemistry, 3rd edn, Wine Appreciation Guild.
Peynaud, E 1985, Knowing and making wine, Wiley, New York.
Rankine, BC 2004, Making good wine: A manual of winemaking practice for Australia and New Zealand, MacMillan, Sydney.
Ribereau-Gayon, P, Dubourdieu, D, Doneche, B, and Lonvaud, A 2006, Handbook of Enology - Volume 1: The Microbiology of Wine and Vinifications, Winetitles, Adelaide.
Ribereau-Gayon, P, Glories, Y, Maujean, A, and Dubourdieu, D 2006, Handbook of Enology - Volume 2: Stabilization and Treatments, Winetitles, Adelaide.
Zoecklein, BW, Fugelsang, KC, Gump, BH & Nury, FS 1999, Wine analysis and production, Aspen Publishing, Gaithersburg.
The following periodicals may also be of value:
The American Journal of Enology and Viticulture.
The Australian and New Zealand Grape Grower and Winemaker (Annual Technical Issue).
The Australian and New Zealand Wine Industry Journal.
The Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research.
Vitis: Journal of Grapevine Research.

Student workload expectations

Activity Hours
Directed Study 80.00
Examinations 2.00
Private Study 83.00

Assessment details

Description Marks out of Wtg (%) Due Date Notes
Assignment 1 20 20 16 Jul 2019
Assignment 2 20 20 16 Jul 2019
2 HR Closed exam 60 60 End S2 (see note 1)

  1. The date of the exam will be during the examination period and will become available during the semester. Please check the exam timetable once published.

Important assessment information

  1. Attendance requirements:
    It is the students' responsibility to study all material provided to them or required to be accessed by them to maximise their chance of meeting the objectives of the course, and to be informed of course-related activities and administration.

  2. Requirements for students to complete each assessment item satisfactorily:
    To complete each of the assessment items satisfactorily, students must obtain at least 50% of the marks available for each assessment item. (Depending upon the requirements in Statement 4 below, students may not have to satisfactorily complete each assessment item to receive a passing grade in this course).

  3. Penalties for late submission of required work:
    Students should refer to the Assessment Procedure (point 4.2.4)

  4. Requirements for student to be awarded a passing grade in the course:
    To be assured of receiving a passing grade a student must obtain at least 50% of the total weighted marks available for the course (i.e. the Primary Hurdle), and have satisfied the Secondary Hurdle (Supervised), i.e. the end of semester examination by achieving at least 40% of the weighted marks available for that assessment item.

    Supplementary assessment may be offered where a student has undertaken all of the required summative assessment items and has passed the Primary Hurdle but failed to satisfy the Secondary Hurdle (Supervised), or has satisfied the Secondary Hurdle (Supervised) but failed to achieve a passing Final Grade by 5% or less of the total weighted Marks.

    To be awarded a passing grade for a supplementary assessment item (if applicable), a student must achieve at least 50% of the available marks for the supplementary assessment item as per the Assessment Procedure (point 4.4.2).

  5. Method used to combine assessment results to attain final grade:
    The final grades for students will be assigned on the basis of the aggregate of the weighted marks obtained for each of the summative assessment items in the course.

  6. Examination information:
    In a Closed Examination, candidates are allowed to bring only writing and drawing instruments into the examination.

  7. Examination period when Deferred/Supplementary examinations will be held:
    Any Deferred or Supplementary examinations for this course will be held during the next examination period.

  8. University Student Policies:
    Students should read the USQ policies: Definitions, Assessment and Student Academic Misconduct to avoid actions which might contravene University policies and practices. These policies can be found at

Assessment notes

  1. The due date for an assignment is the date by which a student must despatch the assignment to the USQ. The onus is on the student to provide proof of the despatch date, if requested by the Examiner. Students must retain a copy of each item submitted for assessment. If requested by the Examiner, students will be required to provide a copy of the assignments submitted for assessment purposes. Such copies should be despatched to USQ within 24 hours of receipt of a request being received. The examiner of a course may grant an extension of the due date of an assignment in extenuating circumstances.

  2. Harvard (AGPS) is the referencing system required in this course. Students should use Harvard (AGPS) style in their assignments to format details of the information sources they have cited in their work. The Harvard (AGPS) style to be used is defined by the USQ Library's referencing guide.