|If you are referring to the general theme of a book or article
Brown (1991) investigated the effects of ...
An investigation into the effects of maternal age (Brown, 1991) found that ...
|When to include page numbers
According to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), when paraphrasing or referring to an idea in another work you are required to give the author and date. You are also encouraged (but not required) to provide a page number, for example, when a work is particularly long and it might be useful for the reader.
Note: In the interest of consistency throughout this APA referencing guide, page numbers are not included in any in-text citations for paraphrased material. Please consult your lecturer and/or your course outline to determine whether you are required to include (or omit) page numbers for paraphrased material.
If your lecturer requires page numbers in text, the page numbers should appear after the year of publication, as shown in the examples below:
Soil layers below the well tip contribute relatively little water (Kozeny, 1988,
Kozeny (1988) found soil layers below the well tip contributed little
Du Cros and McKercher (2014) explain that some tourists seek out tangible
heritage like historic buildings, while other tourists pursue intangible heritage
experiences such as festivals and storytelling (p. 53).
Some tourists seek out tangible heritage like historic buildings, while other
tourists pursue intangible heritage experiences such as festivals and
storytelling (Du Cross & McKercher, 2014, p. 53).
|When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal sentence structure
The year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors.
Wright and Mander (2002) found that although there was a reduction in
literacy, the difference was not statistically significant.
|When the authors or citations are not part of the formal sentence structure
It was found that although there was a reduction in literacy, the difference was
not statistically significant (Wright & Mander, 2002).
|Two or more citations within the same parentheses
Arrange alphabetically, separated by semicolons.
Research reveals that the use of mobile devices positively impacts on
childrens' opinion of learning by providing a new engagement
opportunity (Fleer, 2013; Marsh, 2011; Yelland & Gilbert, 2012).
|Group authors and abbreviations
The names of groups are usually spelled out each time they appear in text.
(University of Southern Queensland, 2009)
University of Southern Queensland (2009)
Only abbreviate if the name is long, cumbersome and the abbreviation is familiar or easily understood.
First citation in text.
(Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR], 2008)
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, 2008)
|One or two authors
Cite the names every time the reference occurs:
Smythe and Jones (2001) found ... (first and subsequent citations)
... as has been shown (Smythe & Jones, 2001).
|More than two authors
For three, four or five authors, cite all authors in the first instance, thereafter, only first author followed by "et al." (not underlined and with no stop after "et") and the year of publication.
Campbell, Brady, Bradley, and Smithson (1991) found ... (first citation)
Campbell et al. (1991) found ... (subsequent citations)
For six or more authors, cite only the first author followed by "et al." and the year. "et al." is an abbreviation for et alii which means and others.
|"and" or "&"?
In running text use "and" to join the names of multiple authors, but use an ampersand (&) inside parentheses.
Jones and Brady (1991) continued to find ...
The authors found the same result in the second and third trials (Jones &
|Citing multiple works by the same author at the same time
Arrange dates in order (oldest to newest). Use suffixes after the year when there are multiple publications from the same year. If the publication dates are same, the suffixes are assigned in the reference list where these kinds of references are ordered in alphabetical order by title (article, chapter or complete work).
Several studies (Jackson, 1999, 2001a, 2001b, 2005, in press) revealed a similar
|Primary authors with the same surname
Include the first author's initials in all text citations even if the year of publication differs.
T.R. Smith (2006) and B. E. Smith (2007) found that ...
J. J. Jackson and Robertson (2000) and E. M. Jackson and Johns (2005)
reached the conclusion that ...
You must acknowledge both the primary and secondary source of information. To do this, include the primary source first and then insert the words "as cited in" before the secondary source.
Cumming's (1980) study (as cited in Pauley, 1991) ...
This belief has been confirmed (Cumming, 1980, as cited in Pauley, 1991) ...
You do not need to source the primary or original work cited (e.g. Cumming, 1980) but the secondary source (e.g. Pauley, 1991) needs to be given in your list of references.
When a citing a source in text that has no identified author, use a shortened title (or the full title if it is short) and year for the parenthetical citation.
The in text citation for the online source "New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure" would be ("New Drug," 2001).
Use double quotation marks for article titles, chapter titles or web page titles. Italicize (without quotation marks) book titles.
(Psychological effects, 1999)
For works designated as "Anonymous", cite in text as Anonymous followed by a comma and the date.
|Legislation (includes Acts and Bills)
The Equal Opportunity Act 1995 (Vic) prohibits ...
... the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) ...
... according to s. 15 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) ...
... Interactive Gambling Bill 2001 (Cth) ...
|Legal authorities (cases)
Carey v. Price (2005)
Mabo v. Queensland (1992)