General forms (when Digital Object Identifiers are assigned, use them):
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxx
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from xxxxxxxxxxxx database.
Include subtitles. All titles must be italicised.
Information about editions (if other than the first), series, volume numbers or chapter page ranges should be included in parentheses ( ) after the title - not in italics but before the full stop.
Other descriptive information may also follow the title and any parenthetical information in brackets [ ] also before the full stop.
A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique name assigned by the International DOI Foundation that provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet. When a DOI is available, no further retrieval information is needed to locate the content.
Leaver, B. L., Ehrman, M., & Shekhtman, B. (2005).
Achieving success in second language acquisition.
Schiraldi, G. R. (2000). The post-traumatic stress disorder
sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth
[Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722
When a DOI is not available, use the URL.
Burton, R. (1832). The anatomy of melancholy. Retrieved from
Database information may be given for books (monographs) of limited circulation (e.g. from the University's database subscriptions).
Nazareth, L. (2007). The leisure economy: How changing
demographics, economics, and generational attitudes
will reshape our lives and our industries [Monograph].
Retrieved from Books24x7 database.
Use "Available from" when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material (rather than to the material itself).
Tyler, G. W. (n.d.). Evolution in the systems age. Available from
Books downloaded to mobile devices (without a DOI).
Ware, C. (2010). Cottage by the sea [Kindle version].
Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks Landmark.
Tzu, S. (2011). The art of war [Kobo version]. Berkeley,
Calder, A. (2009). Compliance for green IT: A pocket
guide. Ely, England: IT Governance.
Bernstein, D. K., & Tiegerman, E. (1989). Language
and communication disorders in children (2nd ed.).
Columbus, OH: Merrill.
|Three to five authors||
List all authors' names.
Curwen, B., Palmer, S., & Ruddell, P. (2000). Brief cognitive
behaviour therapy (Brief Therapies Series). London,
|Six or more authors||
List all author names for up to and including seven authors.
For books with more than seven authors, give the first six author names, followed by an ellipsis (...) and then the last author.
Freeman, K. E., Gheen, M., ... Urdan, T., (2000).
Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning scales
(PALS). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
In-text: (Midgley et al., 2000).
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Roy, M. J. (Ed.). (2006). Novel approaches to the
diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress
disorder (NATO Security Through Science Series).
Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS.
Grubb, M., & Neuhoff, K. (Eds.). (2006). Emissions
trading & competitiveness: Allocations, incentives and
industrial competitiveness under the EU emissions
trading scheme. London, England: Earthscan.
|Article or chapter in an edited book or an encyclopaedia||
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
Treasure, D. C., Lemyre, P. N., Kuczka, K. K., &
Standage, M. (2007). Motivation in elite sport:
A self-determination perspective. In M. S. Hagger
& N. L. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation
and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp.
153-166). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Bergmann, I. (1997). Attention deficit disorder. In
The new Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp.
501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Cormier, L. S. (1985). Action responses. In
Interview strategies for helpers (2nd ed., pp.
114-118, 121). Monterey, CA: Brooks.
Dadds, M. R., James, R. C., Barrett, P. M., & Verhulst,
F. C. (2004). Diagnostic issues. In T. H. Ollendick &
J. S. March (Eds.), Phobic and anxiety disorders in
children and adolescents: A clinician's guide to
effective psychosocial and pharmacological
interventions (Part 1, pp. 3-33). Retrieved from
Individual chapters may have their own DOI.
Jacobs, G. M., & Hall, S. (2002). Implementing
cooperative learning. In J. C. Richards & W. A.
Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching:
An anthology of current practice (pp. 52-58).
|No authors or editors||
If there are no authors or editors, move the title to that position.
Psychological effects of cocaine and crack addiction:
A survey of the psychological side of so-called
"designer drugs". (1999). Philadelphia, PA:
In text, use a few words of the title (in italics), or the whole title if it is short, in place of an author name in the citation: (Psychological effects, 1999).
If a work is signed "Anonymous", begin the entry with the word Anonymous as if it were a true name.
Anonymous. (1996). Primary colors: A novel of politics.
New York, NY: Random House.
|Author as publisher||
American Psychiatric Association. (2001). Diagnostic
and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).
Washington, DC: Author.
Full official names of group authors such as associations or government agencies should be used. Parent bodies precede subdivisions. File by the first significant word.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). Measures of
Australia's progress (Catalogue No. 1370.0).
Canberra, Australia: Author.
Church of England. Archdeaconry of Maidstone. (1877).
The Church in its divine constitution and office, and in its
relations with the civil power: A charge delivered to the clergy
of the Archdeaconry of Maidstone at the ordinary visitation in
May 1877; with notes (Talbot Collection of British Pamphlets).
Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/details/
National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia).
Health Care Committee. Expert Panel on Mental
Health. (1991). Homelessness and severe
mental disorders: Report of the Health Care
Committee Expert Panel on Mental Health
(Monograph series (National Health and
Medical Research Council (Australia). Health
Care Committee) No. 2). Canberra, Australia:
Australian Government Publishing Service.
Queensland. Department of Corrective Services.
Women's Policy Unit. (2000). Profile of female
offenders under community and custodial
supervision in Queensland. Brisbane,
United States. Public Health Service. Office of
the Surgeon General. (1988). The health
consequences of smoking: Nicotine addiction;
a report of the Surgeon General (DHHS
Publication No. (CDC) 88-8406). Rockville,
MD: Office of Smoking and Health.
World Bank. (2008). Textbooks and school
library provision in secondary education in
Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank Working
Paper No. 126. Africa Human Development
Series). Retrieved from EBL database.
|Translators and illustrators||
Levy-Leboyer, C. (1982). Psychology and
environment (D. Cantor and I. Griffiths, Trans.).
Beverley Hills, CA: Sage. (Original work
The Publication manual does not include examples for including illustrators but the following format would be consistent.
Reesink, M. (1980). The princess who always ran away
(F. Tresy, Illus.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.